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Papyri Graecae 

Greek Magical Papyri Texts 


Acquiring a Supernatural Assistant 
Papyri graecae magicae I.54 

Papyri graecae magicae III. 1-59 

Papyri graecae magicae IV. 1-25 

Papyri graecae magicae IV.1227-64 

Papyri graecae magicae IV. 1716-1870 aka "The Sword of 


Papyri graecae magicae VII. 429-58 

Ecloga Ex Papyris Magicis: Liber I 

Ecloga Ex Papyris Magicis: Liber II 

Ecloga Ex Papyris Magicis: Liber III 

Mithras Liturgy 

A Mithraic Ritual by GRS Mead. Taken from the Mithras Liturgy. 

Demotic Magical Papyri Texts 

The Demotic Magical Papyrus of London and Leiden 

Curse Tablets 
D.T. 237 
D.T. 241 
D.T. 242 

D.T. 271 (Hadrumetum, North Africa, c. 3rd cent. C.E.) 

Papers on the Greek Magical Papyri 

Self-Identification with Deity and Voces Magicae in Ancient 
Egyptian and Greek Magic 

The Demons of Magic 

Acquiring a Supernatural Assistant 
Greek Magical Papyri 

Pnouthios to Keryx, a god[-fearing man], greetings. As one who 
knows, I have prescribed for you [this spell for acquiring an 
assistant] to prevent your failing / as you carry out [this rite]. After 
detaching all the pres- criptions [bequeathed to us in] countless 
books, [one out of all. . .] I have shown you this spell for acquiring 
an assistant [as one that is serviceable] to you ... for you to take 
this holy [assistant] and only . . . O friend of aerial / spirits [that 
move]. . .having persuaded me with god-given spells . . . but [not] I 
have dis patched this book so that you may learn thoroughly. For 
the spell of Pnouthis [has the power] to persuade the gods and all 
[the goddesses]. And [I shall write] you from it about [acquiring] 
an assistant. 

[The] traditional rite [for acquiring an assistant]: After the 
preliminary purifications, / [abstain from animal food] and from 
all uncleanliness and, on whatever [night] you want to, go [up] 
onto a lofty roof after you have clothed yourself in a pure 
garment . . . [and say] the first spell of encounter as the sun's orb is 
dis appearing . . . with a [wholly] black Isis band on [your eyes], 
and in your right hand / grasp a falcon's head [and . . . ] when the 
sun rises, hail it as you shake its head [and] . . . recite this sacred 
spell as you burn [uncut] frankincense and pure rose oil, making 
the sacrifice [in an earthen] censer on ashes from the [plant] 
heliotrope. And as you recite the spell there will be / this sign for 
you: a falcon will [fly down and] stand in front of [you], and after 

flapping its wings in [mid-air and dropping] an oblong stone, it will 
immediately take flight and [ascend] to heaven. [You] should pick 
up this stone; carve it at once [and engrave it later]. Once it has 
been engraved, bore a hole in it, pass a thread through and wear it 
around your neck. But in the evening, / go up to [your] housetop 
[again] and, facing the light of the goddess, ad dress to her this 
[hymnic spell] as you again sacrifice myrrh troglitis in the same 
fashion. Light [a fire] and hold a branch of myrtle . . . shaking it, 
[and salute] the goddess. 

At once there will be a sign for you like this: [A blazing star] will 
descend and come to a stop in the middle / of the housetop, and 
when the star [has dissolved] before your eyes, you will behold the 
angel whom you have sum- moned and who has been sent [to you], 
and you will quickly learn the decisions of the gods, but do not be 
afraid: [approach] the god and, taking his right hand, kiss him and 
say these words to the angel, for he will quickly respond to you 
about whatever you want. But you / adjure him with this [oath] 
that he meet you and remain inseparable and that he not [keep 
silent or] disobey in any way. But when he has with certainty 
accepted this oath of yours, take the god by the hand and leap 
down, [and] after bringing him [into] the narrow room where you 
reside, [sit him] down. After first preparing the house / in a fit- 
ting manner and providing al types of foods and Mendesian wine, 
set these before the god, with an uncorrupted boy serving and 
maintaining silence until the [angel] departs. And you address 
preliminary (?) words to the god; "I shall have you as a friendly 
assistant, a beneficent god who serves me when- ever I say. 

' Quickly, by your / power now appear on earth to me, yea verily, 

And while reclining, you yourself quickly speak about what you 
propose. Test this oath of the god on [what] you wish. But when 3 
hours have passed, the god will immediately leap up. Order the 
boy to run [to] the door. And say, "Go, lord, blessed god, / where 
you live eternally, as you will," and the god vanishes. 

This is the sacred rite for acquiring an assistant. It is 
acknowledged that he is a god; he is an aerial spirit which you have 
seen. If you give him a command, straightway he performs the 
task: he sends dreams, he brings women, men without the use of 
magical material, he kills, he destroys, he stirs up winds from the 
earth, he carries / gold, silver, bronze, and he gives them to you 
whenever the need arises. And he frees from bonds a person 
chained in prison, he opens doors, he causes invisibility so that no 
one can see you at all, he is a bringer of fire, he brings water, wine, 
bread and [whatever] you wish in the way of foods: olive oil, 
vinegar — with the single exception of fish—and he will bring 
plenty of vegetables, / whatever kind you wish, but as for pork, you 
must not ever tell him to bring this at all! And when you want to 
give a [dinner], tell him so. Conjure up in your mind any suitable 
room and order him to prepare it for a banquet quickly and 
without delay. At once he will bestow chambers with golden 
ceilings, and you will see their walls covered with marble — and 
you consider these things partly real / and partly just illusionary — 
and costly wine, as is meet to cap a dinner splendidly. He will 
quickly bring daimons, and for you he will adorn these servants 
with sashes. These things he does quickly. And [as soon as] you 

order [him] to perform a serv ice, he will do so, and you will see 
him excelling in other things: He stops ships and [again] / releases 
them, he stops very many evil [daimons], he checks wild beasts 
and will quickly break the teeth of fierce reptiles, he puts dogs to 
sleep and renders them voiceless. He changes into whatever form 
[of beast] you want: one that flies, swims, a quadruped, a 
reptile. He will carry you [into] the air, and again hurl you into the 
billows / of the sea's current and into the waves of the sea; he will 
quickly freeze rivers and seas and in such a way that you can run 
over them firmly, as you want. And [especially] will he stop, if ever 
you wish it, the sea-runnning foam, and whenever you wish to 
bring down stars and whenever you wish to make [warm things] 
cold and cold things / warm, he will light lamps and extinguish 
them again. And he will shake walls and [cause] them to blaze with 
fire; he will serve you suitably for [whatever] you have in mind, O 
[blessed] initiate of the sacred magic, and will accomplish it for you, 
this most powerful assistant, who is also the only lord of the 
air. And the gods will agree to everything, for without him / 
nothing happens. Share this great mystery with no one [else], but 
conceal it, by Helios, since you have been deemed worthy by the 
lord [god]. 

And this is spoken next: "Hither to me. King, [I call you] God of 
Gods, might, boundless, un defiled, indescribably, firmly 
established Aion. / Be inseparable from me from this day forth 
through all the time of my life." 

Then question him by the same oaths. If he tells you his name, 
take him by the hand, descend and have him recline as I have said 
above, setting before him part of the / foods and drinks which you 

partake of. And when you release him, sacrifice to him after his 
departure what is prescribed and pour a wine offer ing, and in this 
way you will be a friend of the mighty angel. When you go abroad, 
he will go abroad with you; when you are destitute, he will give you 
money. He will tell you what things will happen both when and ad 
what time of the night or day. And if / anyone asks you "What do I 
have in mind?" or "What has happened to me?" or even "What is 
going to happen?," question the angel, and he will tell you in 
silence. But you speak to the one who questions you as if from 
yourself. When you are dead, he will wrap [up] your body as befits 
a god, but he will take your spirit and carry it into the air with 
him. / For no aerial spirit which is joined with a mighty assistant 
will go into Hades, for to him all things are subject. Whenever you 
wish to do something, speak his name alone into the air [and] say, 
["Come!"] and you will see him actually standing near you. And 
say to him, "Perform this task," and he does it at once, and after 
doing it he will say to you, "What else do you want? For I am eager 
for heaven," If you do not / have immediate orders, say to him, 
"Go, lord," and he will depart. In this fashion, then, the god will be 
seen by you alone, nor will anyone ever hear the sound of his 
speaking, just you yourself alone. And he will tell you about the 
illness of a man, whether he will live or die, even on what day and 
at what hour of night. / And he will also give [you both] wild herbs 
and the power to cure, and you will be [worshipped] as a god since 
you have a god as a friend. These things the mighty assistant will 
perform competently. Therefore share these things with no one 
except [your] legitimate son alone when he asks you for the magic 
powers imparted [by] us. Farewell. 

The address to the sun / requires nothing except the formula 
"lAEOBAPHRENEMOUN" and the formula "lARBATHA." 

Papyri graecae magicae III. 1-59 

[P.G.M. IILi-164 is a multipurpose magical recipe, part of which 
deals with restraining charioteers (lines 15-30). The instructions 
begin with the ritual drowning of a cat while reciting a formula to 
Sekhmet-Bastet, a "cat-faced" goddess mentioned in several other 
Egyptian magical texts.] 

Take the cat, and make [three] lamellae, one for its anus, one for 
and one for its throat; and write the formula [concerning the] deed 
on a clean sheet of papyrus, with cinnabbar [ink], and [then the 
names of] the chariots and charioteers, and the chariot boards and 
the racehorses. Wind this around the body of the cat and bury it. 
Light seven lamps upon [7] unbaked bricks, and make an offering, 
fumigating storax gum to it, and be of good cheer. Take its body 
[and preserve] it by immuring it either in a tomb or in a burial 
place ... with colors, ... bury ... looking toward the sunrise, pour out 
(?) saying: 

"Angel, ... [SEMEA], chthonic ... lord (?), grant [safety?], ... O 
chthonic one, in [the] horse race, lAKTORE; hold ... restrain 
spirit ... the daimon of [the] place ... and may the [deed] come 
about for me immediately, immediately; quickly, quickly, because I 
conjure you, at this place and at this time, by the implacable god ... 
THACHOCHA EIN CHOUCHEOCH, and by the great chthonic god, 
ARIOR EUOR, and by the names that apply to you; perform the 
NN deed" (add the usual). 

Then take up the water in which the drowning took place, and 
sprinkle it [on] the stadium or in the place where you are 
performing [the rite]. 

The formula to be spoken, while you are sprinkling the 
drowning water, is as follows: I call upon you. Mother of all men, 
you who have brought together the limbs of Meliouchos, even 
Entrapper, Mistress of corpses, Hermes, Hekate, [Hermes?], 
Hermekate, LETH AMOUMAMOUTERMYOR; I conjure you, the 
daimon that has been aroused in this place, and you, the daimon of 
the cat that has been endowed with spirit; come to me on this very 
day and from this very moment, and perform for me the NN deed" 
(add the usual, whatever you wish). 

[The process continues, with the wordlAEO being written on the 
first and third lamellae and a more elaborate conjuration spell 
being written on the second lamella.] 

Papyri graecae magicae IV. 1-25 

This spell calls upon Egyptian and Jewish powers for the purpose 
of revelation. The text includes initial words of power, brief 
instructions for the use of the invocation, a series of greetings, and 
a concluding request for revelation. In syncretistic fashion the 
invocation combines traditional Egyptian lore with other 
references. Part of this spell is paralleled in PDM XIV.627-35. 

the great demon and the inexorable one, 

On the day of Zeus, at the first hour. 
But on the (day) of deliverance, at the fifth hour, 

A cat 
At the eighth, a cat 

Hail, Osiris, king of the underworld, 
lord of embalming, 
who is south of Thinis, 
who gives answer in Abydos, 
who is under the noubs tree in Meroe, 
whose glory is in Pashalom. 

Hail, Althabot 

Bring Sabaoth unto me. 
Hail, Althonai, great Eou, very valiant 

Bring Michael unto me. 

The mighty angel who is with god. 
Hail, Anubis, of the district of Hansiese, 

You are upon your mountain. 

Thoth the great, the great, the wise. 
Hail, gods, 

Achnoui Acham Abra Abra Sabaoth 
For Akshha Shha is my name, 
Sabashha is my true name 
Shlot Shlot very valiant is my name 
So let the one who is in the underworld 

Join the one who is in the air. 
Let them arise, enter, and give answer to 

Concerning the matter about which I 
ask them. 
The usual. 

Papyri graecae magicae IV.1227-64 

This text gives instruction for driving out a demon. After the 
opening sentence, the text indicates the words to be uttered, and 
the words to be addressed to the divine (1231-39) are given in 
Coptic. These Coptic words are the only Christian element in the 
text. The reference to "the seven" probably indicates the seven 
spheres of the sky. Next, the text describes the procedures to bind 
and defeat the demonic force (1248-52). Lastly, there are 
instructions for the preparation of an amulet. The utterances 
directed toward the amulet include permutations and verbal 
transformations based upon BOR and PHOR (P-Hor), are 
probably the name of the Egyptian godHorus. Other utterances 
refer to the Egyptian god Bes and the Greek word for favor 

Excellent spell for driving out demons: 

Formula to be spoken over his head: Place the olive branches 
before him and stand behind him and say, "Greetings, god of 
Abraham; greetings, god of Jacob; Jesus the upright, the holy spirit, 
the son of the father, who is below the seven, who is within the 
seven. Bring Yao Sabaoth; may you power issue forth from N., until 
you drive away this unclean demon Satan, who is in him. I adjure 
you, demon, whoever you are, by this god Sabarbarbathioth 
Sabarbarathiouth Sababarbathioneht Sabarbarbaphai. Come out, 
demon, whoever you are, and stay away from N., hurry, hurry, now, 
now! Come out, demon, since I bind you with unbreakable 
adamantine fetters, and I deliver you into the black chaos in 

Procedure: Take seven olive branches. For six of them tie together 
the two ends of each one, but for the remaining one use it as a whip 
as you utter the adjuration. Keep it secret; it is proven. 

After driving out the demon, hang around N. an amulet, which the 
patient puts on after the expulsion of the demon, with these things 
written on a tin metal leaf: BOR PHOR PHORBA PHOR PHORBA 
protect N. 

Papyri graecae magicae IV.1716-1870 

Sword of Dardanos: Rite which is called "sword," which has no 
equal because of its power, for it immediately bends and attracts 
the soul[[i]] of whomever you wish. As you say the spell, also say: 
"I am bending to my will th e soul of him NN." 

Take a magnetic stone which is breathing and engrave Aphrodite 
sitting astride Psyche and with her left hand holding on her hair 
bound in curls. And above her head: "ACHMAGE RARPEPSEI"; 
and below Aphrodite and Psyche engrave Eros standi ng on the 
vault of heaven, holding a blazing torch and burning Psyche. And 
below Eros these names: "ACHAPA ADONAIE BASMA CHARAKO 
lAKOB lAO E PHARPHAREI." On the other side of the stone 
engrave Psyche and Eros embracing one another and beneath 
Eros's feet these letters: "SSSSSSSS," and beneath Psyche's feet: 
"EEEEEEEE." Use the stone, when it has been engraved and 
consecrated, like this: put it under your tongue and turn it to what 
you wish and say this spell: 

"I call upon you, author of all creation, who spread your own wings 
over the whole world, you, the unapproachable and unmeasurable 
who breathe into every soul life-giving reasoning, who fitted all 
things together by your power, firstborn, foun der of the universe, 
golden-winged, whose light is darkness, who shroud reasonable 
thoughts and breathe forth dark frenzy, clandestine one who 
secretly inhabit every soul. You engender an unseen fire as you 
carry off every living thing without growing we ary of torturing it, 
rather having with pleasure delighted in pain from the time when 
the world came into being. You also come and bring pain, who are 

sometimes reasonable, sometimes irrational, because of whom 
men dare beyond what is fitting and take re fuge in your light 
which is darkness. Most headstrong, lawless, implacable, 
inexorable, invisible, bodiless, generator of frenzy, archer, torch- 
carrier, master of all living sensation and of everything clandestine, 
dispenser of forgetfulness, creator of silence, through whom the 
light and to whom the light travels, infantile when you have been 
engendered within the heart, wisest when you have succeeded; I 
call upon you, unmoved by prayer, by your great name: 
AMA RATAGEL, first-shining, night-shining, night rejoicing, 
night-engendering, witness, EREKISITHPHE ARARACHARARA 
BERIAMBEBO, you in the sea, MERMERGO U, clandestine and 
MARBA KARBA MENABOTH EIIA. Turn the 'soul' other NN to 
me NN, so that she may love me, so that she may feel passion for 
me, so that she may give me what is in her power. Let her say to me 
what is in her soul because I have called upon your great name." 

And on a golden leaf inscribe this sword: "One THOURIEL 
be a propitious day for this name and for me who know it and am 
wearing it. I summon the immortal and infallible strength of God. 
Grant me the submission of every soul for which I have called upon 
you." Give the leaf to a partridge to gulp down and kill it. Then pick 

it up and wear it around your neck after inserting into the strip the 
the herb called "boy love." 

The burnt offering which endows Eros and the whole procedure 
with soul is this: manna, 4 drams; storax, 4 drams; opium, 4 drams; 
myrrh, [f drams;] frankincense, saffron bdella, one-half dram each. 
Mix in rich dried fig and blend everything in equal parts with 
fragrant wine, and use it for the performance. In the performance 
first make a burnt offering and use it in this way. 

And there is also a rite for acquiring an assistant, who is 

made out of wood from a mulberry tree. He is made as a winged 
Eros wearing a cloak, with his right foot lifted for a stride and with 
a hollow back. Into the hollow put a go Id leaf after writing with a 
cold-forged copper stylus so-and-so's name [and]: 
"MARSABOUTARTHE ~ be my assistant and supporter and 
sender of dreams." 

Go late at night to the house [of the woman] you want, knock on 
her door with the Eros and say: "Lo, she NN resides here; 
wherefore stand beside her and, after assuming the likeness of the 
god or daimon whom she worships, say what I propose.& quot; 
And go to your home, set the table, spread a pure linen cloth, and 
seasonal flowers, and set the figure upon it. Then make a burnt 
offering to it and continuously say the spell of invocation. And send 
him, and he will act without fail. And whene ver you bend her to 
your will with the stone, on that night it sends dreams, for on a 
different night it is busy with different matters. 

[i]] H.D. Betz pg. 6911.218 remarks: "Since the operator does not 
want spiritual love, PSYCHE here is probably the female pudenda. 
Against this interpretation is THN YUXHN TOU DEINA (1. 1721), 
but since the r est of the spell is concerned with attracting a woman, 
we should probably emend here and read THS DEINA." 

Papyri graecae magicae VIL429-58 

A restraining [rite] for anything, works even on chariots. It 
also causes enmity and sickness, cuts down, destroys, and 
overturns, for [whatever] you wish. The spell [in it], when said, 
conjures daimons [out] and makes them enter [objects or people]. 
Engrave in a plate [made] of lead from a cold-water channel what 
you want to happen, and when you have consecrated it with bitter 
aromatics such as myrrh, bdellium, styrax, and aloes and thyme, 
with river mud, late in the evening or in the middle of the night, 
where there is a stream or the drain of a bath, having tied a cord 
[to the plate] throw it into the stream ~ or into the sea ~ [and let it] 
be carried along. Use the cord so that, when you wish, you can 
undo [the spell]. Then should you wish to break [the spell], untie 
the plate. Say the formula seven times and you will see something 
wonderful. Then go away without turning back or giving an answer 
to anyone, and when you have washed and immersed yourself, go 
up to your own [room] and rest, and use [only] vegetable food. 
Write [the spell] with a headless bronze needle. 

The text to be written is: "I conjure you, lord Osiris, by your 
holy names OUCHIOCH OUSENARATH, Osiris, 
OUNNEPHER EN 000, 1 give over to you, lord Osiris, and I 
deposit with you this matter:" [Here one would write what effect 
the spell should have and on whom.] 

But if you cause [the plate] to be buried or [sunk in] river or land 
or sea or stream or coffin or in a well, write the Orphic formula, 
saying, "ASKEI KAI TASKEI" and, taking a black thread, make 365 
knots and bind [the thread] around the outside of the plate, saying 
the same formula again and, "Keep him who is held" (or "bound"), 
or whatever you do. And thus the plate is deposited. For Selene, 
when she goes through the underworld, breaks whatever [spell] 
she finds. But when this [rite] has been performed, [the spell] 
remains [unbroken] so long as you say over [the formula] daily at 
this spot [where the plate is deposited]. Do not hastily share [this 
information] with anyone, for you will find [its like (?) only] with 
much labor, (trans. Morton Smith in H.D. Betz (1986)) 

Ecloga Ex Papyris Magicis: Liber I 

a Johanne Opsopoeo 

Liber I 

* * * 

Book I 

Shall we write about the things not to be spoken of? 
Shall we divulge the things not to be divulged? 
Shall we pronounce the things not to be pronounced? 

- Julian, Hymn to the Mother of the Gods 


Origin of the Magical Papyri 

Although most of the magical papyri were discovered in Egypt the 
nineteenth century and brought together as part of the Anastasi 
Collection, they were not completely published until 1925. 

It is quite likely that many of the papyri come from a single source, 
perhaps a tomb or temple library, and it is commonly supposed 
that they were collected by a Theban Magician. In any case, they 
are one of the best sources of Greco-Egyptian magic and religion, 
comparable to the Qumran scrolls for Judaism and the Nag 
Hamadi library for Gnosticism. We are extremely lucky that they 
have survived, since magical books and scrolls were often 
systematically burned (Acts 19:19; but not just by the Christians: 
Augustus ordered 2000 to be burned). 


Here are the translations of a few spells, prayers, etc. that I thought 
might be useful or interesting. The information in [brackets] 
following each indicates the collection (PGM = Papyri Graecae 
Magicae, PDM = P. Demoticae M.), the papyrus number and the 
lines where the spell can be found. The source for these 
translations is Hans Dieter Betz (ed.). The Greek Magical Papyri in 
Translation Including the Demotic Spells 

The spells, prayers, etc. are organized by category: 

I. Protection 

n. Divination and Visions 
HI. Self-Improvement 

IV. Health and Healing 

V. Craft 

VI. Miscellaneous 

Pronunciation of Magical Names 

In general, most of the "voces magicae" (magical names) are 
written in Old Coptic, which used Greek letters, so you will do best 
if you think Greek. Thus, Y sounds between English "u" and "y", 
something like German umlauted "u". Pronounce CH as in German 
"ach" or Scotch "loch". The symbol E' represents eta, so pronounce 
like a long "a"; O' represents omega, so pronounce like a long "o". 
The diphthong "OU" is pronounced like English "oo". The symbols 
PH (phi) and TH (theta) probably should be aspirated "p" and "t", 
but may have been pronounced like English "f ' and "th" by the 
time the papyri were written. The symbol "NN" in a spell means 

"fill in the blank," generally with the name of the one on whose 
behalf the spell is cast (thus, "NN" or "the NN man"), or with the 
question or problem to which the spell is addressed (thus, "the NN 


i. Protective Spell 

Taking Sulfur and Seed of Nile Rushes, burn as Incense to the 
Moon and say, "I call on You, Lady Isis, whom Agathos Daimon 
permitted to rule in the entire Black Land [i.e., Egypt]. Your name 
Isis Sothis, SOUE'RI, Boubastis, EURELIBAT CHAMARI 
NEBOUTOS OUE'RI AIE' E'OA O'AI. Protect me. Great and 
Marvelous Names of the God (add the usual [i.e., the protection 
you seek]); for I am the One Established in Pelusium, 
PHON Thoth. Protect me. Great and Marvelous Names of the 
Great God! (add the usual) "ASO' EIO' NISAO'TH. Lady Isis, 
Nemesis, Adrasteia, Many-named, Many-formed, glorify me, as I 
have glorified the Name of Your Son Horus! (add the usual)" [PGM 

ii. Restraining Spell 

Write on a Tin Lamella with a Bronze Stylus before Sunrise the 

throw it into River or into Sea before Sunrise. Also write on it, with 
the others, these Characters: "[six symbols, see below] Mighty 
Gods, restrain (add the usual, whatever you wish)." [PGM VII.417- 

[The six symbols are: (1) an X in a circle; (2) a backwards capital E; 
(3) a Z with a small circle at the end of each line segment (four in 
all); (4) draw a capital E on its side with the legs pointing down, 
add small leftward pointing feet to the first two legs, add two 
upward tick marks from the back between the second and third 
legs, extend the back to the left a little, and the first leg up a little to 
make a backwards L at the top-left corner, extend this upward 
from the left end to make a small |_| sign, then write a tiny U 
nested inside; (5) an X with a small circle on the end of the right 
leg; (6) a small epsilon or set membership sign.] 

iii. Spell for Restraining Anger 

If you want Someone to cease being Angry with you, write with 
Myrrh this Name of Anger: "CHNEO'M" [probably Egyptian 
Khnum]. Hold it in your Left Hand and say: "I am restraining the 
Anger of all, especially of him, NN, which is CHNEO'M." [PGM 

iv. Against Every Wild Animal, Aquatic Creature and Robbers 

Attach a Tassel to your Garment and say: "LO'MA ZATH AIO'N 
ACHTHASE MA . . . ZAL BALAMAO'N E'EIOY, protect me, NN, in 
the Present Hour! Immediately, immediately! Quickly, quickly!" 

V. Charm of Hekate Ereschigal Against Fear of Punishment 

If He [i.e., a punishment daimon] comes forth, say to Him: "I am 
Ereschigal, the One holding Her Thumbs, and not even one Evil 
can befall Her!" If, however. He comes close to you, take hold of 
your Right Heel and recite the following: "Ereschigal, Virgin, Bitch, 
Serpent, Wreath, Key, Herald's Wand, Golden Sandal of the Lady 
of Tartaros!" And you will avert Him. "ASKEI KATASKEI ERO'N 
SEMNE', I have been initiated, and I went down into the 
Underground Chamber of the Dactyls, and I saw the Other Things 
Down Below, Virgin, Bitch, and all the rest!" Say It at the 
Crossroad, and turn around and flee, because it is at those Places 
that She appears. 

Saying It Late at Night, about what you wish. It will reveal it in 
your Sleep; and if you are led away to Death, say It while scattering 
Seeds of Seseme, and It will save you. [PGM LXX.4-19] 

vi. Indispensable Invisibility Spell 

Take Fat or an Eye of a Nightowl and a Ball of Dung rolled by a 
Beetle and Oil of an Unripe Olive and grind them all together until 
smooth, and smear your Whole Body with it and say to Helios: "I 
adjure You by Your Great Name, BORKE' PHOIOUR 10' ZIZIA 
lEO' lEO' lEO' lEO' lEO' NAUNAX AI AI AEO' AEO' E'AO'!" And 
moisten It and say in addition: "Make me Invisible, Lord Helios, 
AEO' O'AE' EIE' E'AO', in the Presence of Any Man until Sunset, 
10' 10' O' PHRIXRIZO' EO'A!" [PGM I.222-31] 


vii. Direct Vision Spell "EEIM TO EIM ALALE'P BARBARIATH 
MESOMMIAS, let the God who prophesies to me come and let 
Him not go away until I dismiss Him, OURNAOUR SOUL 

In a Bronze Cup over Oil. Anoint your Right Eye with Water from a 
Shipwreck and the Left with Coptic Eyepaint, with the same Water. 
If you cannot find Water from a Shipwreck, then from a Sunken 
Skiff. [PGMV.54-69] 

viii. Request for a Dream Oracle 

Take a Strip of Clean Linen and write on it the following Name. 
Roll it up to make a Wick, pour Pure Olive Oil over it and light it. 

The Formula to be written is this: "HARMIOUTH LAILAM 

In the Evening then, when you are about to go to Sleep, being Pure 
in every respect, do this: Go to the Lamp, say 7 times the following 
Formula, extinguish the Light and go to Sleep. 

The Formula to be spoken is as follows: "SACHMOUNE [i.e., 
Sakhmet] PAE'MALIGOTE'RE'E'NCH, the One who Shakes, who 
Thunders, who has Swallowed the Serpent, Surrounds the Moon, 

and Hour by Hour Raises the Disk of the Sun, CHTHETHO'NI is 
Your Name. I ask You, Lords of the Gods, SE'TH CHRE'PS: reveal 
to me concerning the Things I wish." [PGM VII.359-69] 

ix. Spell for Revelation 

[Addressed to Ursa Major (Great Bear)]: "KOMPHTHO 
KOMASITH KOMNOUN You who shook and shake the World, You 
who have swallowed the Ever-living Serpent and daily raise the 
Disk of the Sun and of the Moon, You whose Name is ITHIOO' E'l 
ARBATHIAO' E', send up to me, NN, at Night the Daimon of This 
Night to reveal to me concerning the NN thing." [PGM IV.1323-30] 

X. Saucer Divination of Aphrodite 

Having kept oneself Pure for 7 days, take a White Saucer, fill It 
with Water and Olive Oil, having previously written on Its Base 
with Myrrh Ink: "E'lOCH CHIPHA ELAMPSE'R ZE'L A E E' I O Y 
O'" (25 letters [in Greek]); and beneath the Base, on the outside: 
"TACHIE'L CNTHONIE' DRAXO'" (18 letters). Wax over with 
White Wax. On the outside of the Rim at the Top: "lERMI PHILO' 
times). Let It rest on the Floor and looking intently at It, say "I call 
upon You, the Mother and Mistress of Nymphs, ILAOCH OBRIE' 
LOUCH TLOR; Come in. Holy Light, and give Answer, showing 
Your Lovely Shape!" 

Then look intently at the Bowl. When you see Her, welcome Her 
and say, "Hail, Very Glorious Goddess, ILARA OUCH. And if You 
give me a Response, extend Your Hand." 

And when She extends It, expect Answers to your Inquiry. But if 
She does not hsten, say, "I call upon the ILAOUCH who has 
begotten Himeros, the Lovely Horai and You Graces; I also call 
upon the Zeus-sprung Physis [Nature] of All Things, two-formed, 
indivisible, straight, foam-beautiful Aphrodite. Reveal to me Your 
Lovely Light and Your Lovely Face, O Mistress ILAOUCH. I 
conjure You, Giver of Fire, by ELGINAL, and by the Great Names 
GERGERIE' THEITHI. I also ask You by the All Wonderful Names, 
AKTEROBORE GERIE' lE'OYA; bring me Light and Your Lovely 
Face and the True Saucer Divination, You shining with Fire, 
bearing Fire all around, stirring the Land from afar, 10' 10' 

Preparation: having kept yourself Pure, as you learned, take a 
Bronze Drinking Cup, and write with Myrrh Ink the previously 
inscribed Stele [charm or amulet] which calls upon Aphrodite, and 
use the untouched Olive Oil and clean River Water. Put the 
Drinking Cup on your Knees and speak over it the Stele mentioned 
above, and the Goddess will appear to you and will reveal 
concerning what Things you wish. [PGM IV.3209-54] 


xi. Memory Spell 

Take Hieratic Papyrus and write the Prescribed Names with 
Hermaic Mjrrh Ink. And once you have written them as they are 
prescribed, wash them off into Spring Water from 7 springs and 

drink the Water on an empty stomach for seven days while the 
Moon is in the East. 

This is the Writing on the strip of papyrus: "KAMBRE' CHAMBRE 

EE O'O'." After doing these things wash the Writing off and drink 
as is prescribed. 

This is also the composition of the Ink: Mjrrh Troglitis, 4 drams; 3 
Karian Figs, 7 pits of Nikolaus Dates, 7 dried Pinecones, 7 piths of 
the single-stemmed Wormwood, 7 wings of the Hermaic Ibis, 
Spring Water. 

When you have burned the Ingredients, prepare them and write. 
[PGM 1.232-47] 

xii. Another Memory Spell 

Take a Silver Tablet and engrave it [with the Uzait Horn, or 
"Sacred Eye of Horns"] after the God [i.e., Helios, the sun] sets. 
Take Cow's Milk and pour it [or, perhaps, heat it]. Put down [into?] 
a Clean Vessel and place the Tablet under [it]; add Barley Meal, 
mix and form Bread: twelve Rolls in the Shape of Female Figures. 
Say [the formula] three times, eat [the rolls] on an Empty Stomach, 
and you will know The Power. 

[The formula]: "BORKA BORKA PHRIX PHRIX RIX O' . . . 

O'AE' E'OA' AO'E' E'O'A O'E'A, enter, Master, into my Mind, and 
grant me Memory, MMM E'E'E' MTHPH!" 

Do this monthly, facing the Moon, on the First Day [of the month]. 
Prostrate yourself before the Goddess [i.e., Selene, the moon], and 
wear the Tablet as an Amulet. [PGM III.410-23] 

xiii. Spell for Strength 

"PHNOUNEBEE' (2 times), give me Your Strength, 10' ABRASAX, 
give me Your Strength, for I am ABRASAX!" Say it 7 times while 
holding your two Thumbs. [PGM LXIX.1-3] 

xiv. Your Great Name, for Favor 

"Everyone fears Your Great Might. Grant me the Good Things: The 
Strength of AKRYSKYLOS, the Speech of EUO'NOS, the Eyes of 
Solomon, the Voice of ABRASAX, the Grace of ADO'NIOS, the God. 
Come to me, Kypris, every day! The Hidden Name bestowed to You: 

Repute, Beauty toward all Men and all Women!" [PGM XCII.1-16] 

XV. Business Spell 

Take Orange Beeswax and the juice of the Aeria Plant and of 
Ground Ivy and mix them and fashion a Figure of Hermes having a 
hollow bottom, grasping in his left hand a Herald's Wand and in 

his right a small Bag. Write on Hieratic Papyrus these Names, and 
you will see Continuous Business: "CHAIO'CHEN 
to this place, because Psentebeth lives here." Put the Papyrus 
inside the Figure and fill in the hole with the same Beeswax. Then 
deposit in a wall, at an inconspicuous place, and crown Him on the 
outside, and sacrifice to Him a cock, and make a Drink Offering of 
Egj^tian Wine, and light for Him a Lamp that is not colored Red. 
[PGM IV.2359-72] 

xvi. Spell for Assertiveness 

"Greetings, Lord, You who are the Means to obtain Favor for the 
Universe and for the Inhabited World. Heaven has become a 
Dancing Place for You, ARSENOPHRE', O King of the Heavenly 
Gods, ABLANATHANALBA, You who possess Righteousness, 
Nature, SATRAPERKME'PH, Origin of the Heavenly World, 
MARMARAO'TH! "Let my Outspokenness not leave me. But let 
every Tongue and Language listen to me, because I am PERTAO' 
lEOYO'ETE'IAEA lE'O'YOEI, Give me graciously whatever You 
want." [PGM XII.182-189] 


xvii. Fever Amulet 


"O Tireless One, KOK KOUK KOUL, save Tais whom Taraus bore 
from every Shivering Fit, whether Tertian or Quartan or Quotidian 
Fever, or an Every-other-day Fever, or one by Night, or even a Mild 
Fever, because I am the ancestral, tireless God, KOK KOUK KOUL! 
Immediately, immediately! Quickly, quickly!" [PGM XXXIII.1-25] 

xviii. Spell for Coughs 

In Black Ink, write on Hyena Parchment: "THAPSATE 
STHRAITO'" - or as I found in another: "TEUTHRAIO' THRAITEU 
THRAITO' THABARBAO'RI [symbol: an X in a circle] 

LIKRALIRE'TA - deliver NN from the Cough that holds him fast." 

xix. Spell for Migraine Headache 

Take Oil in your Hands and utter the Spell: "Zeus sowed a Grape 
Seed: it parts the Soil; He does not sow it; it does not sprout." 
[PGM VII.199-201] 

XX. Spell for Scorpion Sting 

ABRASAX, I bind you, Scorpion of Artemisia, three-hundred and 

fifteen times, on the fifteenth day of Pachon . . ." [PGM XXVIIIa.i- 

xxi. A Contraceptive, the Only One in the World 

Take as many Bittervetch Seeds as you want for the Number of 
Years you wish to remain Sterile. Steep them in the Menses of a 
Menstruating Woman. Let them steep in her own Genitals. And 
take a Frog that is alive and throw the Bittervetch Seeds into its 
Mouth so that the Frog swallows them, and release the Frog alive 
at the place where you captured him. And take a Seed of Henbane, 
steep it in Mare's Milk; and take the Nasal Mucus of a Cow, with 
Grains of Barley, put these into a Leather Skin made from a Fawn 
and on the outside bind it up with Mulehide Skin, and attach it as 
an Amulet during the Waning of the Moon in a Female Sign of the 
Zodiac on a Day of Kronos or Hermes [i.e., Saturn or Mercury]. 
Mix in also, with the Barley Grains, Cerumen from the Ear of a 
Mule. [PGM XXXVI.320-32] 

xxii. A Prescription to Stop Blood 

Juice of "Great-Nile" Plant together with Beer; you should make 
the Woman drink it at Dawn before she has eaten. It stops. [PDM 

xxiii. The Way to Know it of a Woman Whether She will be 

You should make the Woman urinate on this Plant, above [i.e., 
"Great-Nile" plant], at Night. When Morning comes, if you find the 
Plant scorched, she will not conceive. If you find it green, she will 
conceive. [PDM xiv.956-60] 


xxiv. Spell for Picking a Plant 

Use it before Sunrise. The Spell to be spoken: "I am picking you, 
such and such a plant, with my Five-fingered Hand, I, NN, and I 
am bringing you home so that you may work for me for a Certain 
Purpose. I adjure you by the Undefiled Name of the God: if you pay 
no Heed to me, the Earth which produced you will no longer be 
watered as far as you are concerned - ever in Life again, if I fail in 
Perfect Charm!" [PGM IV.286-95] 

XXV. Procedure for Obtaining Herbs 

Among the Egyptians Herbs are always obtained like this: the 
Herbalist first purifies his own Body, then sprinkles with Natron 

and fumigates the Herb with Resin from a Pine Tree after carrying 
it around the Place 3 times. Then, after burning Kyphi and pouring 
the Libation of Milk as he prays, he pulls up the Plant while 
invoking by Name the Daimon to whom the Herb is being 
dedicated and calling upon Him to be more effective for the Use for 
which it is being acquired. 

The Invocation for him, which he speaks over any Herb, generally 
at the Moment of Picking, is as follows: 

"You were sown by Kronos, you were conceived by Hera, you were 
maintained by Ammon, you were given birth by Isis, you were 
nourished by Zeus the God of Rain, you were given growth by 
Helios and Drosos [Dew]. You are the Dew of all the Gods, you are 
the Heart of Hermes, you are the Seed of the Primordial Gods, you 
are the Eye of Helios, you are the Light of Selene, you are the Zeal 
of Osiris, you are the Beauty and Glory of Ouranos, you are the 
Soul of Osiris' Daimon which revels in Every Place, you are the 
Spirit of Ammon. As you have exalted Osiris, so exalt yourself and 
rise just as Helios rises each day. Your size is equal to the Zenith of 
Helios, your Roots come from the Depths, but your Powers are in 
the Heart of Hermes, your Fibers are the Bones of Mnevis [i.e., Mr- 
wr, the holy bull of Heliopolis], and your Flowers are the Eye of 
Horus, your Seed is Pan's Seed. I am washing you in Resin as I also 
wash the Gods [i.e., the cult statues] even as I do this for my own 
Health. You also be cleaned by Prayer and give us Power as Ares 
and Athena do. I am Hermes! I am acquiring you with Good 
Fortune and Good Daimon both at a Propitious Hour and on a 
Propitious Day that is effective for all things." 

After saying this, he rolls the Harvested Stalk in a Pure Linen Cloth 
(but into the place of its Roots they threw seven Seeds of Wheat 
and an equal number of Barley, after mixing them with Honey), 
and after pouring in the Ground which has been dug up, he departs. 
[PGM IV.2967-3006] 

xxvi. Interpretations of Herbs and Other Ingredients 

Which the Temple Scribes employed, from the Holy Writings, in 
translation. Because of the Curiosity of the Masses they [i.e., the 
scribes] inscribed the Names of the Herbs and Other Things which 
they employed on the Statues of the Gods, so that they [the 
masses], since they do not take Precaution, might not practice 
Magic, [being prevented] by the Consequence of their 
Misunderstanding, But we have collected the explanations from 
many Copies, all of them Secret. 

Here they are: 

A Snake's Head: a Leech. 

A Snake's Ball of Thread: this means Soapstone. 

Blood of a Snake: Hematite. 

A Bone of an Ibis: this is Buckthorn. 

Blood of a Hyrax: truly of a Hyrax [probably the rock hyrax, 
Procavia capensis]. 

Tears [Sleep Sand] of a Hamadryas Baboon: Dill Juice. 
Crocodile Dung: Ethiopian Soil, 

Blood of a Hamadryas Baboon: Blood of a Spotted Gecko. 
Lion Semen: Human Semen. 
Blood of Hephaistos: Wormwood. 
Hairs of a Hamadryas Baboon: Dill Seed. 

Semen of Hermes: Dill. 
Blood of Ares: Purslane. 
Blood of an Eye: Tamarisk Gall. 

Blood from a Shoulder: Bear's Breach [probably Acanthus mollis L. 
or Helleborus foetidus L.]. 
From the Loins: Camomile. 

A Man's Bile: Turnip Sap [probably Brassica napus L.]. 

A Pig's Tail: Leopard's Bane [probably a variety of leopard's bane 

in the genus Boronicum, or one of the heliotropes]. 

A Physician's Bone: Sandstone. 

Blood of Hestia: Camomile. 

An Eagle: Wild Garlic [Trigonella foenumgraecum, but the reading 
is doubtful]. 

Blood of a Goose: A Mulberry Tree's Milk. 
Kronos' Spice: Piglet's Milk. 

A Lion's Hairs: Tongue of a Turnip [i.e., the leaves of the taproot]. 
Kronos' Blood: ... of Cedar. 
Semen of Helios: White Hellebore. 

Semen of Herakles: this is Mustard-rocket [probably Eruca sativa]. 

A Titan's Blood: Wild Lettuce. 

Blood from a Head: Lupine. 

A Bull's Semen: Egg of a Blister Beetle. 

A Hawk's Heart: Heart of Wormwood. 

Semen of Hephaistos: This is Fleabane. 

Semen of Ammon: Houseleek. 

Semen of Ares: Clover. 

Fat from a Head: Spurge. 

From the Belly: Earth-apple. 

From the Foot: Houseleek. 

[PGM XII.401-44] 

[Similar lists can be found in De succedaneis transmitted among 
the works of Galen, Claudii Galeni Opera Omnia (Kuehn, ed.), vol. 
19, 721-47; adapted version in Paul of Aegina, Paulus Aegineta, 
Corpus Medicorum Graecorum IX/2 (Heiberg, ed.), vol. II, 401-8; 
and in Dioscorides' Materia Medica.] 

VL Miscellaneous 

xxvii. Prayer to Selene for Any Spell 

[Since several aspects of this ritual are contrary to modern Pagan 
and Wiccan ethics and practice, I had some misgivings about 
including it in this collection, but decided to do so, because the 
hymn is so beautiful, so moving and so empowering. It has been 
discussed by K. Kerenyi, "Die Goettin Natur," Eranos-Jahrbuch 14 
(1947), 39-86.] 

"Come to me, O Beloved Mistress, Three-faced 

Selene; kindly hear my Sacred Chants; 

Night's Ornament, young, bringing Light to Mortals, 

O Child of Morn who ride upon the Fierce Bulls, 

O Queen who drive Your Car on Equal Course 

With Helios, who with the Triple Forms 

Of Triple Graces dance in Revel with 

The Stars. You're Justice and the Moira's Threads: 

Klotho and Lachesis and Atropos 

Three-headed, You're Persephone, Megaira, 

Allekto, Many-Formed, who arm Your Hands 

With Dreaded, Murky Lamps, who shake Your Locks 

Of fearful Serpents on Your Brow, who sound 

The Roar of Bulls out from Your Mouths, whose Womb 

Is decked out with the Scales of Creeping Things, 

With Pois'nous Rows of Serpents down the Back, 

Bound down Your Backs with Horrifying Chains 

Night-Crier, Bull-faced, loving Solitude, 

Bull-headed, You have Eyes of Bulls, the Voice 

Of Dogs; You hide Your Forms in Shanks of Lions, 

Your Ankle is Wolf-shaped, Fierce Dogs are dear 

To You, wherefore they call You Hekate, 

Many-named, Mene, cleaving Air just like 

Dart-shooter Artemis, Persephone, 

Shooter of Deer, night shining, triple-sounding. 

Triple-headed, triple-voiced Selene 

Triple-pointed, triple-faced, triple-necked. 

And Goddess of the Triple Ways, who hold 

Untiring Flaming Fire in Triple Baskets, 

And You who oft frequent the Triple Way 

And rule the Triple Decades, unto me 

Who'm calling You be gracious and with Kindness 

Give Heed, You who protect the Spacious World 

At night, before whom Daimons quake in Fear 

And Gods Immortal tremble. Goddess who 

Exalt Men, You of Many Names, who bear 

Fair Offspring, Bull-eyed, Horned, Mother of Gods 

And Men, and Nature, Mother of All Things, 

For You frequent Olympos, and the broad 

And boundless Chasm You traverse. Beginning 

And End are You, and You Alone rule All. 

For All Things are from You, and in You do 
All Things, Eternal One, come to their End. 
As Everlasting Band around Your Temples 
You wear Great Kronos' Chains, unbreakable 
And unremovable, and You hold in 
Your Hands a Golden Scepter. Letters 'round 
Your Scepter Kronos wrote Himself and gave 
To You to wear that All Things stay steadfast: 
Subduer and subdued. Mankind's Subduer, 
And Force-subduer; Chaos, too. You rule. 
Hail, Goddess, and attend Your Epithets, 
I burn for You this Spice, O Child of Zeus, 
Dart-shooter, Heav'nly One, Goddess of Harbors, 
Who roam the Mountains, Goddess of Crossroads, 
O Nether and Nocturnal, and Infernal, 
Goddess of Dark, Quiet and Frightful One, 
O You who have Your Meal amid the Graves, 
Night, Darkness, Broad Chaos: Necessity 
Hard to escape are You; You're Moira and 
Erinys, Torment, Justice and Destroyer, 
And You keep Kerberos in Chains, with Scales 
Of Serpents are You dark, O You with Hair 
Of Serpents, Serpent-girded, who drink Blood, 
Who bring Death and Destruction, and who feast 
On Hearts, Flesh Eater, who devour Those Dead 
Untimely, and You who make Grief resound 
And spread Madness, come to my Sacrifices, 
And now for me do You fulfill this Matter." 

[Tr.:E. N. O'Neil] 

Offering for The Rite: For doing Good, offer Storax, Myrrh, Sage, 
Frankincense, a Fruit Pit. But for doing Harm, offer Magical 
Material of a Dog and a Dappled Goat (or in a similar way, of a 
Virgin Untimely Dead). 

Protective Charm for The Rite: Take a Lodestone and on it have 
carved a Three-faced Hekate. And let the Middle Face be that of a 
Maiden wearing Horns, and the Left Face that of a Dog, and the 
One on the Right that of a Goat. After the Carving is done, clean 
with Natron and Water, and dip in the Blood of One who has died a 
Violent Death. Then make Food Offering to it and say the same 
Spell at the time of the Ritual. [PGM IV.2785-2890] 

xxviii. Love Spell 

Aphrodite's Name, which becomes known to No One quickly, is 
NEPHERIE'RI [i.e. Nfr-iry.t, "the beautiful eye", an epithet for 
Aphrodite/Hathor] - this is the Name. If you wish to win a Woman 
who is beautiful, be Pure for 3 days, make an offering of 
Frankincense, and call this Name over it. You approach the 
Woman and say it seven times in your Soul as you gaze at her, and 
in this way it will succeed. But do this for 7 days. [PGM IV.1265-74] 

xxix. To be Able to Eat Garlic and Not Stink 
Bake Beetroots and eat them. [PGM VII. 173] 

XXX. To Let Those Who Have Difficulty Intermingling 

[i.e. Socializing] Perform Well Give Gum mixed with Wine and 
Honey to be smeared on the Face. [PGM VII. 179-80] 

xxxi. To be Able to Drink a Lot and Not Get Drunk Eat a baked 
Pig's Lung. [PGM VII.181] 

xxxii. To be Able to Copulate a Lot 

Grind up fifty Tiny Pinecones with 2 ozs. of Sweet Wine and two 
Pepper Grains and drink it. [PGM VII. 184-5] 

xxxiii. To Get an Erection When You Want Grind up a Pepper with 
some Honey and coat your Thing. [PGM VII. 186] 

xxxiv. Love Salve 

. . . Hawk's Dung; Salt, Reed, Bele Plant. Pound together. Anoint 
your Phallus with it and lie with the Woman. If it is dry, you should 
pound a little of it with Wine, anoint your Phallus with it, and lie 
with the Woman. Very Good. [PDM xiv.1155-62] 


Ecloga Ex Papyris Magicis: Liber II 

a Johanne Opsopoeo 

Liber II 

* * * 

Book II 

'Tis true : There's Magicke in the web of it: 

A Sybill, that had numbred in the world 

The Sun to course, two hundred compasses, 

In her Prophetticke furie sow'd the Worke: 

The Wormes were hallowed, that did breede the Silke, 

And it was dyde in Mummey, which the SkilfuU 

Conserv'd of Maidens hearts. 

~ Shakespeare, Othello, III.iv.70 



This is the second book of spells, charms, prayers, rituals etc. from 
the Greek magical papyri and Demotic spells. I have selected items 
that seem interesting and useful. Unfortunately, many of the 
papyri are very fragmentary and incomplete, and others make use 
of complicated magickal sjonbols and figures that are hard to 
represent so I have had to omit some otherwise worthwhile spells 

and charms. For these I suggest consulting Betz (below), which 
contains nearly 600 spells, charms, prayers, invocations, etc. 

The information in [brackets] following each selection indicates 
the collection (PGM = Papyri Graecae Magicae, PDM = P. 
Demoticae M.), the papyrus number and the lines where the spell 
can be found. The source for these translations is Hans Dieter Betz 
(ed.), The Greek Magical Papyri in Translation Including the 
Demotic Spells, Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1986. 

The spells, prayers, etc. are organized by category: 

I. Protection 

II. Divination and Visions 

III. Self-Improvement 

IV. Health and Healing 

V. Craft 

VI. Miscellaneous 
Pronunciation of Magical Names 

In general, most of the "voces magicae" (magical names) are 
written in Old Coptic, which used Greek letters, so you will do best 
if you think Greek. Thus, Y sounds between English "u" and "y", 
something like German umlauted "u". Pronounce CH as in German 
"ach" or Scotch "loch". The symbol E' represents eta, so pronounce 
like a long "a"; O' represents omega, so pronounce like a long "o". 
The symbols PH (phi) and TH (theta) probably should be aspirated 
"p" and "t", but may have been pronounced like English "f ' and 
"th" by the time the papyri were written. The symbol "NN" in a 
spell means "fill in the blank," generally with the name of the one 

on whose behalf the spell is cast (thus, "NN" or "the NN man"), or 
with the question or problem to which the spell is addressed (thus, 
"the NN matter"). 


i. Charm to Break Enchantment 

Taking a Three-Cornered Sherd from a Fork in the Road ~ pick it 
up with your Left Hand ~ inscribe it with Mjrrhed Ink and hide it. 
[Write:] "ASSTRAELOS CHRAELOS, dissolve every Enchantment 
against me, NN, for I conjure You by the Great and Terrible Names 
which the Winds fear and the Rocks split when they hear it." 

[There are seven Symbols to be written on the Sherd; they look like 
this: (i) a Greek capital upsilon (like a Y with sagging arms), with 
small circles at all three ends; (2) an X with small circles on the 
ends; (3) a squared-off U with small circles at the ends of the arms; 
(4) a line inclined to the right, with a small right-angle bend to the 
right at the end, small circles at both ends; (5) a line inclined to the 
right, small circles on ends, but slightly to the left; (6) arc or 
rounded L from upper left to lower right, circles on ends; (7) An A 
with circles on its feet. The whole sign looks something like this: Y 
X U / ^ ) L A] [PGM XXXVI.256-64] 

ii. Charm to Restrain Anger and Charm for Success 

(No Charm is Greater, and it is to be performed by means of Words 
Alone.) Hold your Thumbs and repeat the Spell 7 times: 
"ERMALLO'TH ARCHIMALLO'TH stop the Mouths that speak 
against me, because I glorify Your Sacred and Honored Names 
which are in Heaven." 

To Augment the Words: Take Papyrus and write thus: "I am 
CHPHYRIS [i.e., the god Khepri, the scarab]. I must be successful! 
ENAEZRAE'L, Angels, protect me from every Bad Situation that 
comes upon me!" [PGM XXXVI.161-77] 

iii. Spell To Catch a Thief 

[Although this spell is coercive, I have included it because it is 
fundamentally defensive.] Take a Plant Chelkbei and Bugloss, 
strain them, burn what you strain out, mix well with Juice, and 
write "CHOO"' with it on a Wall. Take Gallows Wood and carve a 
Hammer. With the Hammer strike the Eye [see below] while 
saying the Formula: "I conjure You by the Holy Names! Hand over 
the Thief who made off with it! CHALCHAK CHALKOUM CHIAM 
PHARIBOU, and by the Shudderful Names: A EE E'E'E' IHI 
00000 YYYYYY O'O'O'O'O'O'O'!" 

[This is the figure to strike:] 


O' [draw the EE 
YY Uzat-Eye, E'E'E' 
1 1 1 1 the Eye of 1 1 1 1 
E'E'E'E'E' Horus,here] E'E'E'E'E' 

lAO' O'lA lO'A AE'O' E'O'A O'AE' 

"Hand over the Thief who Stole it! As long as I strike the Eye with 
this Hammer, let the Eye of the Thief be struck, and let it Swell Up 
until it betrays him!" While sajdng this. Strike with the Hammer. 
[PGM V.70-95] 


iv. Inquiry of Bowl Divination and Necromancy Nephotes to 
Psammetichos, Immortal King of Egypt. Greetings. Since the Great 
God has appointed you Immortal King and Nature has made you 
an Expert Magician [Sophistes], I too, with a desire to show you 
the Industry in me, have sent you this Magical Procedure which, 
with Complete Ease, produces a Holy Power.... 

Whenever you want to Inquire about Matters, take a Bronze Vessel, 
either a Bowl or a Saucer, whatever Kind you wish. Pour Water: 
Rain Water if you are calling upon the Heavenly Gods, Sea Water if 
Gods of the Earth, River Water if Osiris or Sarapis, Spring Water if 
the Dead. Holding the Vessel on your Knees, pour out Green Olive 
Oil, bend over the Vessel and speak the Prescribed Spell. And 
address whatever God you want and ask about whatever you wish, 
and He will reply to you and tell you about Anything. And if He has 
spoken dismiss Him with the Spell of Dismissal, and you who have 
used this Spell will be Amazed. 

The Spell spoken over the Vessel is: "AMOUN AUANTAU 

God! Appear to me this very Hour and do not Frighten my Eyes! 
Hither to me, O NN God, be Attentive to me because he [probably 
should be "I"] Wishes and Commands this ACHCHO'R ACHCHO'R 
PTENACHO'CHEU" (a Hundred [Greek] Letters). 

But you are not unaware, Mighty King and Leader of Magicians, 
that this is the Chief Name of Typhon, at whom the Ground, the 
Depth of the Sea, Hades, Heaven, the Sun, the Moon, the Visible 
Chorus of Stars, the whole Universe all Tremble, the Name that 
consists of 100 Letters. Finally, when you have called, whomever 
you called will appear, God or Dead Man, and He will give an 
Answer about anything you ask. And when you have learned to 
your Satisfaction, dismiss the God merely with the Powerful Name 
of the Hundred Letters as you say, "Depart, Master, for the Great 
God, NN, wishes and commands this of You!" Speak the Name, 
and He will depart. Let this Spell, Mighty King, be transmitted to 
You Alone, Guarded by you. Unshared! 

There is also the Protective Charm itself which you wear while 
Performing, even while Standing: onto a Silver Leaf inscribe this 
Name of lOO Letters with a Bronze Stylus, and wear it strung on a 
Thong from the Hide of an Ass. [The ass is the animal associated 
with Seth/Typhon.] [PGM IV.154-160, 222-260] 

V. Vessel Divination 

To inquire opposite the Moon: You should do it as a Vessel Inquiry 
alone or with a Youth. If you are the one who is going to Inquire, 

you should equip your Eye with Green Eye-Paint and Black Eye- 
Paint. You should stand on a High Place on the Top of your House. 
You should speak to the Moon when it fills the Sound-Eye on the 
15th Day, you being Pure for Three Days. [The Sound-Eye is Uzait 
Horn, the wdz.t-eye or Sacred Eye of Horus; the Moon fills the 
Sound-Eye when it is full.] You should recite this Spell opposite the 
Moon seven or nine times until He [the Moon (masculine in 
Egyptian)] appears to you and speaks to you: "Hail, SAKS Amoun 
SAKS ABRASAKS, for You are the Moon, the Great One of the 
Stars, He who formed them! Listen to these things which I said! 
Walk in accordance with the Words of my Mouth! Reveal Yourself 
to me, THAN THANA THANATHA, this is my Correct Name!" 
Nine times of saying it until She [the Moon] reveals Herself to you. 
[PDM xiv.695-700] 

vi. Method of 29 Letters for Receiving an Omen 

"Great is the Lady Isis!" Copy of a Holy Book found in the Archives 
of Hermes: The Method is that concerning The 29 Letters [of the 
Coptic alphabet], through which Letters Hermes and Isis, who was 
seeking Osiris, Her Brother and Husband, found Him. Call upon 
Helios and all the Gods in the Deep concerning Those Things for 
which you want to receive an Omen. Take 29 Leaves of a Male Date 
Palm and write on each of the Leaves the Names of the Gods. Pray 
and then pick them up Two By Two. Read the Last Remaining Leaf 
and you will find your Omen, how things are, and you will be 
answered clearly. [PGM XXIVa.1-25] 

vii. Charm of Solomon's Collapse 

[That is, Solomon's Charm to produce a trance.] 

(Works on Boys and on Adults): I swear to you by the Holy Gods 
and the Heavenly Gods not to share the Procedure of Solomon with 
anyone and certainly not to use it for Something Questionable 
unless a Matter of Necessity forces you, lest perchance Wrath be 
preserved for you. 

Formula to be Spoken: "OURIO'R AME'N IM TAR CHO'B 
TNE'KAIO'B. Hear me, that is, my Holy Voice, because I call upon 
Your Holy Names, and reveal to me concerning the Thing which I 
want, through the NN Man or Little Boy, for otherwise I will not 
defend Your Holy and Undefiled Names! Come to me, You who 
became Hesies and were carried away by a River; inspire the NN 
Man or Boy concerning that which I ask You: BARBE'TH MNO'R 
Come to me through the NN Man or Little Boy and tell me 
accurately since I speak Your Names which Thrice-Greatest 
Hermes [i.e., Hermes Trismegistos] wrote in Heliopolis with 
Hieroglyphic Letters: ARBAKO'RIPH ME'NIAM O'RAO'B 


Enter into him and reveal to me concerning the NN Matter!" 

After you have Purified the Designated Man by keeping him from 
Intercourse for 3 Days, you yourself also being Pure, enter together 
with him. After you have taken him up to an Open Place, seat him 
on Unbaked Bricks, dress him and give him an Anubian Head of 
Wheat and a Falcon- Weed Plant so that he will be protected. Gird 
yourself with a Palm Fiber of a Male Date Palm, extend your Hands 
up to Heaven, toward the Rays of the Sun, and say the Formula 7 
times. Next make an offering of Male Frankincense after pouring 
out Wine, Beer, Honey or Milk of a Black Cow onto Grape-Vine 
Wood. Then say the Formula 7 times just into the Ear of the NN 
Man or Little Boy, and right away he will fall down. But you sit 
down on the Bricks and make your Inquiry, and he will describe 
Ever5^hing with Truth. You should crown him with a Garland of 
Indigenous Worm- Wood, both him and you, for the God delights 
in the Plant. 

Dismissal of the Lord: Into the Ear of NN: "ANANAK 

If He tarries, sacrifice on Grape-Vine Charcoal a Sesame Seed and 
Black Cumin while saying: "ANANAK O'RBEOUSIRI AEE'IOYO', 
go away. Lord, to Your Own Thrones and protect him, NN, from all 
Evil!" You learned thoroughly; keep it Secret. 

The Awakening is as follows: Stand away from the Boy or Man, 
having your Palms spread on your Buttocks, your Feet together on 
the Ground, recite the following often until he is moved either 
toward the Right or toward the Left: "AMOUN E'EI ABRIATH 
KICHO'P O'TEM PITH." Then as a Dog [i.e., presumably, bark like 
a dog]. [PGM IV.850-929] 

viii. Spell for Revelation 

Keep yourself Pure for 7 days before the Moon becomes Full by 
abstaining from Meat and Uncooked Food, by leaving behind 
during the prescribed days exactly Half of your Food in a 
Turquoise Vessel [probably faience, i.e., blue-green glazed pottery, 
rather than actual turquoise], over which you are also to Eat, and 
by abstaining from Wine. When the Moon is Full, go by yourself to 
the Eastern Section of your City, Village, or House and throw out 
on the Ground the Left-Over Morsels. Then return Very Quickly to 
your Quarters and shut yourself in before He can get there, because 
He will shut you out if He gets there before you. But before you 
throw out the Morsels, fix in the Ground at a Slight Angle a 
Verdant Reed that is about Two Cubits long, tie some Hairs from a 
Stallion about the Mid-Section of a Horned Dung Beetle, and 
suspend the Beetle from the Reed by them. Then light a Lamp that 
has not been used before and place it under the Beetle in a new 
Earthen- Ware Dish, so that the Heat from the Lamp barely reaches 
the Beetle. Stay Calm after you have thrown out the Morsels, gone 
to your Quarters, and shut yourself in; for the One you have 
summoned will stand there and, by threatening you with Weapons, 
will try to force you to release the Beetle. But remain Calm, and do 
not release it until He gives you a Response; then release it right 

away. And every day during the Period of Purification when you 
are about to Eat and to go to Bed, speak the following Spell 7 times 
(you are to say them again when you return to your Quarters after 
throwing out the Food). Keep it Secret: "You with the Wooden 
Neck, you with the Clay Face, come in to me, for I am Sabertoush, 
the Great God who is in Heaven!" 

The Phylactery [charm worn for protection] for the foregoing: With 
Blood from the Hand or Foot of a Pregnant Woman, write the 
Name given below on a Clean Piece of Papyrus; then tie it about 
your Left Arm by a Linen Cords and wear it. Here is what is to be 
written: "SHTE'IT CHIEN TENHA, I bind and loose." 

The dismissal: When you release the Beetle, say: "Harko, Harko is 
my Name; Harko is my True Name!" Guard these Instructions well! 

The Rite: an Onion. 

[Probably means: Use the Procedure involving an Onion.] [PGM 

ix. A "God's Arrival" of Osiris 

[Le., an Invocation of Osiris for a Revelation] "O Isis, O Nephthys, 
O Noble Soul of Osiris Wennefer, come to me! I am Your Beloved 
Son, Horus. O Gods who are in Heaven, O Gods who are in the 
Earth, O Gods who are in the Primeval Waters, O Gods who are in 
the South, O Gods who are in the North, O Gods who are in the 
West, O Gods who are in the East, come to me tonight! Teach me 
about Such and Such a Thing about which I am asking. Quickly! 
Quickly! Hurry! Hurry!" 

Formula: On a Phoenix written with Myrrh Water and Juniper 
Water. Put a Pellet of Gum on your Right Hand; recite these 
Writings to it in the Evening while your Hand is stretched out to 
the Moon, while you are going to Sleep; and leave your Hand 
before you. Very Good. 4 times. [PDM Suppl.130-38] 


X. Prayer to Helios: A Charm to Restrain Anger and for Victory and 
for Securing Favor 

(None is Greater): Say to the Sun (Helios) 7 times, and anoint your 
Hand with Oil and wipe it on your Head and Face. 

Now the Prayer is: "Rejoice with me, You who are set over the East 
Wind and the World, for whom all the Gods serve as Body-Guards 
at Your Good Hour and on Your Good Day, You who are the Good 
Daimon of the World, the Crown of the Inhabited World, You who 
arise from the Abyss, You who Each Day rise a Young Man and set 
CHMOUMMAO'PHI. I beg You, Lord, do not allow me to be Over- 
Thrown, to be Plotted Against, to receive Dangerous Drugs, to go 
into Exile, to fall upon Hard Times. Rather, I ask to obtain and 
receive from You Life, Health, Reputation, Wealth, Influence, 
Strength, Success, Charm, Favor with all Men and all Women, 
Victory over all Men and all Women. Yes, Lord, 
Matter which I want, by means of Your Power." [PGM XXXVI.211- 

xi. Prayer 

"I call upon You who have All Forms and Many Names, Double- 
Horned Goddess, Mene, whose Form no one knows except Him 
who made the entire World, lAO', the One who shaped You into 
Twenty-Eight Shapes of the World so that they might complete 
every Figure and distribute Breath to every Animal and Plant, that 
it might Flourish, You who grow from Obscurity into Light and 
leave Light for Darkness" (beginning to leave by Waning). 

"And the First Companion of Your Name is Silence, the Second a 
Popping Sound, the Third Groaning, the Fourth Hissing, the Fifth 
a Cry of Joy, the Sixth Moaning, the Seventh Barking, the Eighth 
Bellowing, the Ninth Neighing, the Tenth a Musical Sound, the 
Eleventh a Sounding Wind, the Twelfth a Wind-Creating Sound, 
the Thirteenth a Coercive Sound, the Fourteenth a Coercive 
Emanation from Perfection. 

"Ox, Vulture, Bull, Beetle, Falcon, Crab, Dog, Wolf, 
Serpent, Horse, She-Goat, Asp, Goat, He-Goat, Baboon, 
Cat, Lion, Leopard, Field-Mouse, Deer, Multi-Form, 
Virgin, Torch, Lightning, Garland, a Herald's Wand, 
Child, Key. 

"I have said Your Signs and Symbols of Your Name so that You 
might hear me, because I pray to You, Mistress of the Whole World. 
Hear me. You, the Stable One, the Mighty One! APHEIBOE'O' 

(add the usual). [PGM VII.756-94] 


xii. Phylactery for Fever, Phantoms, Daimons, etc. 

"I, Abrasax, shall deliver. Abrasax am I! ABRASAX 
ABRASICHO'OU, help little Sophia-Priskilla. Get hold of and do 
away with what comes to little Sophia-Priskilla, whether it is a 
Shivering Fit ~ get hold of it! Whether a Phantom ~ get hold of it! 
Whether a Daimon ~ get hold of it! I, Abrasax, shall deliver. 
Abrasax am I! ABRASAX ABRASICHO'OU. Get hold of, get hold of 
and do away with... what comes to little Sophia-Priskilla on This 
Very Day, whether it is a Shivering Fit ~ do away with it! Whether 
a Daimon ~ do away with it!" [PGM LXXXIX.1-27] 

xiii. Spell for Dog Bite 

To be said to the Bite of the Dog: "My Mouth being full of Blood of 
a Black Dog, I spitting out the Redness of a Dog, I come forth from 
Alkhah [Egyptian 'rq-hh (Alxai), a sacred place at Abydos, the 
cemetery where the mummy of Osiris was buried]. O this Dog who 
is among the Ten Dogs which belong to Anubis, the Son of His 
Body, extract your Venom, remove your Saliva from me also! If you 
do not extract your Venom and remove your Saliva, I shall take you 
up to the Fore-Court of the Temple of Osiris, my Watch-Tower. I 
will do for you according to the Voice of Isis, the Magician, the 
Lady of Magic, who Bewitches everything, who is Never Bewitched 
in her Name of Isis, the Magician." 

You pound Garlic with Gum, put it on the Wound of the Dog Bite, 
and speak to it Daily until it is Well. [PDM xiv.554-62] 


xiv. This is the Consecration for All Purposes: Spell to Helios 

"I invoke You, the Greatest God, Eternal Lord, World Ruler, who 
are over the World and under the World, Mighty Ruler of the Sea, 
rising at Dawn, shining from the East for the Whole World, setting 
in the West. Come to me. Thou who risest from the Four Winds, 
benevolent and lucky Agathos Daimon, for whom Heaven has 
become the Processional Way. I call upon Your Holy and Great and 
Hidden Names which You rejoice to hear. The Earth flourished 
when You shone forth, and the Plants became fruitful when you 
laughed; the Animals begat their Young when You permitted. Give 
Glory and Honor and Favor and Fortune and Power to this, NN, 
Stone which I consecrate today (or to the Phylactery [charm] being 
consecrated) for [or in relation to] NN. I invoke You, the greatest 
Helios, giving Light throughout the Whole World. You are the 
Great Serpent, Leader of all the Gods, who control the Beginning of 
Egypt and the End of the Whole Inhabited World, who mate in the 
Ocean, PSOI PHNOUTHI NINTHE'R. You are He who becomes 
Visible each Day and Sets in the Northwest of Heaven, and Rises in 
the Southeast. 

In the 1st Hour You have the Form of a Cat; Your Name is 
PHARAKOUNE'TH. Give Glory and Favor to this Phylactery. 

In the 2nd Hour You have the Form of a Dog; Your Name is 
SOUPHI. Give Strength and Honor to this Phylactery, or to this 
Stone, and to NN. 

In the 3rd Hour You have the Form of a Serpent; Your Name is 
AMEKRANEBECHEO THO'YTH. Give Honor to the God NN. 

In the 4th Hour You have the Form of a Scarab; Your Name is 
SENTHENIPS. Mightily strengthen this Phylactery in this Night, 
for the Work for which it is consecrated. 

In the 5th Hour You have the Form of a Donkey; Your Name is 
ENPHANCHOUPH. Give Strength and Courage and Power to the 
God, NN. 

In the 6th Hour You have the Form of a Lion; Your Name is BAI 
SOLBAI, the Ruler of Time. Give Success to this Phylactery and 
Glorious Victory. 

In the 7th Hour You have the Form of a Goat; Your Name is 
OUMESTHO'TH. Give Sexual Charm to this Ring (or to this 
Phylactery, or to this Engraving). 

In the 8th Hour You have the Form of a Bull; Your Name is 
DIATIPHE', who becomes visible everywhere. Let all Things done 
by the use of this Stone be accomplished. 

In the 9th Hour You have the Form of a Falcon; Your Name is 
PHE'OUS PHO'OUTH, the Lotus Emerged From the Abyss. Give 
Success and Good Luck to this Phylactery. 

In the loth Hour You have the Form of a Baboon; Your Name is 
BESBYKI. [Prayer for gift omitted?] 

In the 11th Hour You have the Form of an Ibis; Your Name is MOU 
RO'PH. Protect this great Phylactery for Lucky Use by NN, from 
this Present Day for All Time. 

In the 12th Hour You have the Form of a Crocodile; Your Name is 
AERTHOE'. [Prayer for gift omitted?] 

You who have set at Evening as an Old Man, who are over the 
World and under the World, Mighty Ruler of the Sea, hear my 
Voice in this Present Day, in this Night, in these Holy Hours, and 
let all done by this Stone, or for this Phylactery, be brought to 
fulfillment, and especially NN matter for which I consecrate It. 
Earth and Heaven and Light and Darkness and the Great God who 
created All, SAROUSIN, You, Agathon Daimonion the Helper, to 
accomplish for me ever3^hing done by the Use of this Ring or 

When you complete the Consecration, say, "The one Zeus is 
Serapis!" [PGM IV.1596-1715] 

XV. How to Say the Magical Sounds 

the "A" [alpha] with an Open Mouth, undulating like a Wave; 

the "O" [omicron] succinctly, as a Breathed Threat; 

the "lAO"' [iota alpha omega] to Earth, to Air, and to Heaven; 

the "E"' [eta] like a Baboon; ... 

the "E" [epsilon] with Enjoyment, aspirating it; 

the "Y" [upsilon] like a Shepherd, drawing out the Pronunciation. 

[This description, taken from a longer spell, does not specify the 
pronunciation of "I" (iota) or "O"' (omega).] [PGM V.24-30] 


xvi. Bear-Charm which Accomplishes Everything 

[The Bear is the constellation Ursa Major, which represents the 
soul of Typhon.] 

Formula: "I call upon You the Greatest Power in Heaven, 
appointed by the Lord God to turn with a Strong Hand the Holy 
Pole, NIKAROPLE'X. Listen to me, Helios, Phre [i.e. Helios-Pre]! 
Hear the Holy Prayer, You who hold together the Universe and 
bring to Life the whole World, THO'ZOPITHE' EUCHANDAMA 
(add the usual). 

Petition to the Sun at Sunset. Formula: "THE'NO'R, O Hehos, 
SANTHE'NO'R, I beseech You, Lord, may the Place and Lord of the 
Bear devote Themselves to me" 

(while petitioning, sacrifice Armara [for recipe, see "Offering", 
below]. Do it at Sunset). 

Charm of Compulsion for the 3rd Day: "ANTEBEROYRTO'R 

The First Formula in a Different Way: "THO'ZOPITHE', Bear, 
Greatest Goddess, Ruling Heaven, Reigning over the Pole of the 
Stars, Highest, Beautiful-Shining Goddess, Incorruptible Element, 
Composite of the All, All-Illuminating, Bond of the Universe 
AEE'IOYO' (square [probably means arranged in lines forming a 


]), You who stand on the Pole, you whom the Lord God appointed 
to turn the Holy Pole with Strong Hand: THO'ZOPITHE' 

Offering for the Procedure: 4 Drams of Frankincense, 4 Drams of 
Myrrh, 2 Ounces each of Cassia Leaf and of White Pepper, 1 Dram 
of Bdellion, 1 Dram of Asphodel Seed, 2 Drams each of Amomon, 
of Saffron, or Terebinth Storax, 1 Dram of Wormwood,... of Vetch 

Plant, Priestly Egyptian Incense, the Complete Brain of a Black 
Ram. Combine these with White Mendesian Wine [i.e. from city of 
Mendes in Nile Delta] and Honey, and make Pellets of Bread. 

Phylactery for the Procedure: Wear a Wolf Knuckle-Bone, mix 
Juice of Vetch and of Pond- Weed in a Censer, write in the Middle 
of the Censer this Name: 

and in this Way make an Offering. [PGM IV.1275-1322] 

xvii. Powerful Spell of the Bear which Accomplishes Anything 

Take the Fat of a Black Ass, the Fat of a Dappled She-Goat, the Fat 
of a Black Bull, and Ethiopian Cumin, mix all together and make 
an Offering to the Bear, having as a Phylactery Hairs from the 
same Animals which you have plaited into a Cord and are wearing 
as a Diadem around your Head. Anoint your Lips with the Fats, 
smear your whole Body with Storax Oil, and make your Petition 
while holding a Single-Shooted Egyptian Onion. Speak concerning 
whatever you wish. Gird yourself with a Palm Fiber of a Male Date 
Palm, kneel down, and speak the following Formula: 

"I call upon You, Holy, Very-Powerful, Very-Glorious, Very-Strong, 
Holy, Autochthons, Assistants of the Great God, the powerful Chief 
Daimons, You who are Inhabitants of Chaos, of Erebos, of The 
Abyss, of The Depth, of Earth, Dwelling in the Recesses of Heaven, 
Lurking in the Nooks and Crannies of Houses, Shrouded in Dark 
Clouds, Watchers of Things Not To Be Seen, Guardians of Secrets, 
Leaders of Those in the Underworld, Administrators of the Infinite, 
Wielding Power over Earth, Earth-Shakers, Foundation-Layers, 

Servants in the Chasm, Shudderful Fighters, Fearful Ministers, 
Turning The Spindle, Freezing Snow and Rain, Air-Transversers, 
Causing Summer Heat, Wind-Bringers, Lords of Fate, Inhabitants 
of Dark Erebos, Bringers of Compulsion, Sending Flames of Fire, 
Bringing Snow and Dew, Wind- Releasers, Disturbers of the Deep, 
Treaders on the Calm Sea, Mighty in Courage, Grievers of the 
Heart, Powerful Potentates, Cliff- Walkers, Adverse Daimons, Iron- 
Hearted, Wild-Tempered, Unruly, Guarding Tartaros, Misleading 
Fate, All-Seeing, All-Hearing, All-Subjecting, Heaven- Walkers, 
Spirit-Givers, Living Simply, Heaven-Shakers, Gladdening the 
Heart, Those Who Join Together Death, Revealers of Angels, 
Punishers of Mortals, Sunless Revealers, Rulers of Daimons, Air- 
Transversers, Almighty, Holy, Unconquerable AO'TH ABAO'TH 

Then write on a Piece of Papyrus the Hundred-Lettered Name of 
Typhon, curved as a Star, and bind It in the middle of the Core 
with the Letters showing. 

This is the Name [Greek letters]: ACHCHO'R ACHCHO'R 

xviii. To Keep Bugs Out of the House 

Mix Goat Bile with Water and sprinkle it. [PGM VII.149-50] 

xix. To Keep Fleas Out of the House 

Wet Rose-Bay with Salt Water, grind it and spread it. [PGM 


Ecloga Ex Papyris Magicis: Liber III 

a Johanne Opsopoeo 

Liber III 

* * * 

Book III 


This is the book of love spells, charms, prayers, rituals etc. from the 
Greek magical papyri and Demotic spells. They are not suitable for 
public consumption. 

The information in [brackets] following each selection indicates 
the collection (PGM = Papyri Graecae Magicae, PDM = P. 
Demoticae M.), the papyrus number and the lines where the spell 
can be found. 

Pronunciation of Magical Names 

In general, most of the "voces magicae" (magical names) are 
written in Old Coptic, which used Greek letters, so you will do best 
if you think Greek. Thus, Y sounds between English "u" and "y", 
something like German umlauted "u". Pronounce CH as in German 
"ach" or Scotch "loch". The symbol E' represents eta, so pronounce 
like a long "a"; O' represents omega, so pronounce like a long "o". 
The sjnnbols PH (phi) and TH (theta) probably should be aspirated 

"p" and "t", but may have been pronounced like English "f ' and 
"th" by the time the papyri were written. 

The symbol "NN" in a spell means "fill in the blank," generally with 
the name of the one on whose behalf the spell is cast (thus, "NN" or 
"the NN man"), or with the question or problem to which the spell 
is addressed (thus, "the NN matter"). 


i. Love Spell 

Aphrodite's Name, which becomes known to No One quickly, is 
NEPHERIE'RI [i.e. Nfr-iry.t, "the beautiful eye", an epithet for 
Aphrodite/ Hathor] ~ this is the Name. If you wish to win a 
Woman who is beautiful, be Pure for 3 days, make an offering of 
Frankincense, and call this Name over it. You approach the 
Woman and say it seven times in your Soul as you gaze at her, and 
in this way it will succeed. But do this for 7 days. [PGM IV. 12 65-74] 

ij. Love Spell Which Acts in the Same Hour 

Take a Seashell and write the Holy Names with the Blood of a 
Black Ass. 

Spell: "I adjure you. Shell, by Bitter Necessity, (MASKELLI 
PYRIPE'GANYX] and by those who have been placed in charge of 
whom NN bore" (add the usual, whatever). "Do not be stubborn. 

AIO' O'AI lOA lAO' O'AI, attract her, NN" (add the usual). 

As the Moon waxes in Aries or in Taurus [add the usual, whatever 
you wish]. [This line may belong to another spell.] [PGM VII. 300a- 

iij. Love Spell 

For Love say while kissing passionately: "I am THAZI N 
LAILAM" (add the usual). [PGM VII.405-6] 

iv. To Appear in Someone's Dreams 

If you wish to appear to Someone at Night in Dreams, say to the 
Lamp that is in daily use, say frequently: "CHEIAMO'PSEI 
ERPEBO'TH, let her, NN, whom NN bore, see me in her Dreams, 
immediately, immediately; quickly, quickly!" (and add the usual, 
whatever you wish). [PGM VII.407-10] 

V. Excellent Love Charm 

Inscribe by scratching on a Tin Lamella. Write and lay it down, 
walking over it. And what is written is this: "I adjure you by the 
Glorious Name of Bacchios" [i.e., Bacchus] (add the usual, 
whatever you wish). [PGM VII.459-61] 

vi. Excellent Love Charm 

Inscribe by scratching on a Tin Lamella the Characters and the 
Names, and after making it Magically Potent with some Magical 
Material, roll it up and throw it in the Sea. 

The Characters are these: "[omitted]ICHANARMENTHO' 
CHASAR, cause her, NN, to love me" (add the usual). Write with a 
Copper Nail from a Shipwrecked Vessel. [PGM VII.462-66] 

vij. From "The Diadem of Moses" 

Take the Plant Snapdragon and hold it under your Tongue while 
lying asleep. And rise early and before you speak to Anyone recite 
the Names, and you will be Invisible to Everyone. 

But when you say them over Drinking Cups and give them to a 
Woman, she will love you, since this Spell has Power over 


For what you wish, say: "Get her, NN, for me, NN" (add the usual, 
whatever you wish). [PGM VII.619-27] 

viij. Cup Spell, Quite Remarkable 

Say the Spell that is spoken to the Cup 7 times: "You are Wine; You 
are not Wine but the Head of Athena. You are Wine; You are not 
Wine, but the Guts of Osiris, the Guts of lAO' PAKERBE'TH 
SEMESILAM O'O'O' E' PATACHNA lAAA." (For the spell of 

who has been stationed over Necessity, lAKOUB lA lAO' 

"At whatever Hour You descend into the Guts other, NN, let her 
love me, NN, for all the Time other Life." [PGM VII.643-51] 

ix. Love Spell 

In Conversation, while kissing passionately, say: "ANOK 

X. A Good Potion 

Take a piece of Hieratic Papyrus and write on it: "LVO' O' 
ACHE'MACHOU. Let her, NN, whom NN bore, love me, NN when 
she has drunk this Drink. [PGM VH. 969-72] 

xi. Love Spell of Attraction 

Purify yourself from Everything for ... Days and say this Spell at 
Sunrise: "Helios ... but come here to me, Mistress AKTIO'PHIS 
ERESCHIGAL PERSEPHONE'; attract to me and bind her, NN, 
whom NN bore, to the Man who is pining away with Passion for 
her; at this very moment, inflame her that she fulfill the Nightly 
Desires of NN, whom NN bore. Aye Lord NETHMOMAO' Hehos, 
enter into the Soul of her, NN, whom NN bore, and burn her Heart, 
her Guts, her Liver, her Spirit, her Bones. Perform successfully for 
me this Charm, immediately, immediately; quickly, quickly!" [PGM 

xij. Love Spell 


out of her Abodes in which she is, to any House, any Place in which 
NN, whom NN bore, is while she love him and craves him, she 
making the Gift of his Heart at every moment!" 

You should write this in Myrrh Ink on a Scrap of Clean Byssus and 
put it in a Clean New Lamp, which is filled with Genuine Oil, in 
your House from Evening until Dawn. If you find the Hair of the 
Woman, put it in the Wick! It is good! [PDM xiv. 1063-69] 

xiij. Love Spell of Attraction 

"I adjure You, Evangelos, by Anubis and Hermes and all the Rest 
Down Below; attract and bind Sarapias whom Helen bore, to this 
Herais, whom Thermoutharin bore, now, now; quickly, quickly! By 
her Soul and Heart attract Sarapias herself, whom Helen bore from 
AE'N. Attract and bind the Soul and Heart of Sarapias, whom 
Helen bore, to this 

Herais, whom Thermoutharin bore from her Womb now, now; 
quickly, quickly!" [PGM XXXILi-19] 


The "Mithras" Liturgy 


This work provides the reader with a brief introduction, Greek text, 
and EngUsh translation of the fascinating though difficult 
document known as the Mithras Liturgy. 


The so-called Mithras Liturgy is included in this series of texts and 
translations for several reasons. The Liturgy is frequently 
mentioned in secondary literature, and has been partially 
translated into English upon several occasions, but it has not 
previously been available in its entirety in English translation. 
Furthermore, the Mithras Liturgy deserves the attention of 
students of early Christian literature and the history of religions, 
particularly Graeco-Roman religion: the Liturgy reflects an 
important religious tendency of its day, a syncretistic piety utilizing 
astrology and magic and emphasizing the ecstatic ascent of the 
individual soul. Of additional interest is the relationship of the 
Mithras Liturgy to the previously known Hermetic literature and 
the recently discovered tractates from Nag Hammadi (cf., for 
example, page 3, note b , below). 

The Mithras Liturgy is part of the great magical codex of Paris 
(Papyrus 574 of the Bibliotheque Nationale). Presumably compiled 
in the early fourth century C.E., this codex contains a variety of 
tractates, hymns, recipes, and prescriptions, which were 
apparently collected for use in the working library of an Egyptian 

magician. Lines 475- 834 of this codex constitute the Mithras 
Liturgy; these boundaries for the Liturgy are suggested by the 
continuity of thought within the Liturgy, by the punctuation 
utiHzed by the scribe, and by the apparent transition to a different 
section (hnes 835-849: astrological calculations). Interestingly, 
lines 467-474 parallel hnes 821-823 and 830-834: thus the Mithras 
Liturgy is placed between two closely related versions of spells 
utilizing lines from Homer. 

The Mithras Liturgy received its name and fame from. A. Dieterich. 
in 1903 Dieterich published his valuable book, Eine 
MithrasLiturgie, in which he proposed that the text in question 
contains an official liturgy of the Mithras cult, a Mithraic ritual for 
the ascent and immortalization of the soul. Although the Mithras 
Liturgy had been later adopted and somewhat adapted by Egyptian 
magicians, Dieterich concluded, the text still preserves the highest 
sacrament in which the blithraic initiate could participate. 
However, since the publication of Dieterich's book, F. Cumont, R. 
Reitzenstein, and others have expressed skepticism concerning the 
Mithraic origin of the Liturgy. Thus, such scholars have suggested 
that more significant parallels to the Liturgy can be found in the 
hermetic writings, or in individualistic and private mysteries, or in 
Graeco-Egyptian syncretism, magic, and solar piety. Yet the 
evidence amassed by Dieterich cannot be easily dismissed, for he 
highlights important echoes of Mithraism in the Mithras Liturgy: 
particularly striking are the mention of "the great god Helios 
Mithras" (line 482), the invocation of the elements (lines 487-537), 
the description of the fire-breathing god Aion (lines 587- 616), and 
the portraits of Helios (lines 635-637) and the highest God (lines 

693-704)- Furthermore, the accounts of Celsus (in Origen, Contra 
Celsum, 6. 21-22) and Porphyry (De antro nympharum, 5-6 etc.) 
on Mithraism verify the fact that such a hturgy for the soul's ascent 
as the Mithras Liturgy could be quite compatible with at least some 
expressions of Mithraism. 

Consequently, it is advisable to conclude that the Mithras Liturgy 
may indeed represent some variety of Mithraism—though not, to 
be sure, Mithraism as it is usually presented. If there is Mithraism 
in this papyrus, it is a Mithraism on the fringe, a Mithraism 
preoccupied with individualism, syncretism, and magic. The 
Mithras Liturgy may thus illustrate a direction taken by those 
carrying on the Mithras tradition in Egypt. 

The text of the Mithras Liturgy is composed of two main parts: a 
liturgical mystery of ascent (lines 475-750), and a set of 
instructions (lines 750-834) for the use of the mystery. After the 
brief introduction (lines 475- 485), the mystery of ascent presents 
the seven liturgical stages for the soul's ecstatic journey: the soul 
thus encounters the four elements (lines 485-537), in their 
generative and regenerative aspects; the lower powers of the air 
(lines 537-585), including the winds, bolts of thunder and lightning, 
and meteors; Aion and the Aionic powers (lines 585-628) , as 
planetary guardians of the heavenly doors; Helios (lines 628-657), 
young and fiery; the seven Fates (lines 657-672) and, next, the 
seven Pole-Lords (lines 673-692), both groups from the region of 
the fixed stars, and both depicted in Egyptian fashion; and finally 
the highest God (lines 692-724), portrayed like Mithras himself. 
After the conclusion (lines 724-750) to the mystery of ascent, the 
instructions for the use of the mystery present a scarab ceremony 

of the sun (lines 750-798) provide instructions for the obtaining of 
the kentritis herb and the fashioning of amulets (lines 798-830) 
and append two additional spells (lines 831-834) The predominant 
place of magic within the Mithras Liturgy deserves special mention. 
The entire text of the Liturgy is permeated with magic, including 
breathing techniques (cf. lines 537-538: drawing in breath from the 
rays) , special recipes (cf. lines 750-755: preparing the cake for the 
scarab), magical rituals (cf. lines 767-769: burying the scarab) 
amulets (cf. lines 659-660: kissing the amulets), and magical 
formulae. The magical formulae themselves are diverse in 
character: some seem onomatopoetic (cf. line 488, PPP: making a 
popping sound, possibly like thunder), symbolic (cf. line 487, 
AEEIOYO: using the seven vowels in a series), or perhaps 
glossolalic (cf. line 492, EY EIA EE); some seem derived from or 
imitative of Greek (cf. hue 562, PROPROPHEGGE: Primal 
Brightener?) Egyptian (cf. line 672, ARARRACHES: Horus of the 
two horizons; and line 717, PHRE: Re, the Sun) , or Semitic words 
(cf. hne 591, SEMESILAM: Eternal sun; and hue 593, lAO: 

Actual Text 

(475) Be gracious to me, o Providence and Psyche, as I write these 
mysteries handed down for gain but for instruction; and for an 
only child I request immortality, O initiates of this our power 
(furthermore, it is necessary for you, O daughter, to take (480) the 
juices of herbs and spices, which will to you at the end of my holy 
treatise), which the great god Helios Mithras ordered to be 
revealed to me by his archangel, so that I alone may ascend into 
heaven as an inquirer (485) and behold the universe. 

This is the invocation of the ceremony: ^ 

"First -origin of my origin, AEEIOYO, first beginning of my 
beginning,^ ppp SSS PHR[] spirits of spirit, the first of the spirit 
(490) in me, MMM, fire given by god to my mixture of the 
mixtures in me, the first of the fire in me, EY EIA EE, water of 
water, the first of the water in me, 000 AAA EEE, earthy 
substance, the first of the earthy substance in me, (495) YE YOE, 

my complete body (I, ^whose mother is 4)^ 

which was formed by a noble arm and an incorruptible right hand 
in a world without light and yet radiant, without soul and yet alive 
with soul, YEI AYI EYOIE: now if it be your will, METERTA (500) 
give me over to immortal birth and, following that, to my 
underlying nature, so that,^ after the present need which is 
pressing me exceedingly, I may gaze upon the immortal (505) 
beginning with the immortal spirit, 

ANCHREPHRENESOYPHIRIGCH, with the immortal water, 
ERONOYI PARAKOYNETH, with the most steadfast air, EIOAE 
PSENABOTH; that I may be born again in thought, KRAOCHRAX 
R OIM ENARCH0MAI,7 (510) and the sacred spirit may breathe in 
wonder at the sacred fire, KYPHE; that I may gaze upon the 
unfathomable, awesome water of the dawn, NYO THESO ECHO 
OYCHIECHOA, and the vivifying (5i5),and encircling aether may 
hear me, ARNOMETHPH; for today I am about to behold, with 
immortal eyes — I, born mortal from mortal womb, but 
transformed by tremendous power and an incorruptible right hand 
(520)! ~ and with immortal spirit, the immortal Aion and and 

master of the fiery diadems— 

I, sanctified through holy consecrations!-- while there subsists 
within me, holy, for a short time, my human soul-might, which I 
will again (525) receive after the present bitter and relentless 
necessity which is pressing down upon me~ 

I, whose mother is according to the 

immutable decree of god, EYE YIA EEI AO EIAY lYA lEO! Since it 
is impossible for me, born (530) mortal, to rise with the golden 
brightnesses of the immortal brilliance, OEY AEO EYA EOE YAE 
5IAE, stand, O perishable nature of mortals, and at once me safe 
and sound after the inexorable and pressing (535) need. For I am 

Draw in breath from the rays, drawing up three times as much as 
you can, and you will see yourself being lifted up and (540) 
ascending to the height, so that you seem to be in mid-air. You will 
hear nothing either of man or of any other living thing, nor in that 
hour will you see anj/thing of mortal affairs on earth, but rather 
you will see all immortal things. For in that day (545) and hour you 
will see the divine order of the skies: the presiding gods^ rising into 
heaven, and others setting. Now the course of the visible gods will 
appear through the disk of god, my father; and in similar fashion 
the so-called "pipe" (550), the origin of the ministering wind. For 
you will see it hanging from the sun's disk like a pipe. You will see 
the outflow of this object toward the regions westward, boundless 
as an east wind, if it be assigned to the regions of the East—and the 
other (viz. the west wind), similarly, toward its own (555) regions.9 

And you will see the gods staring intently at you and rushing at you. 
So at once put your right finger on your mouth and say: 

"Silence! Silence! Silence! Symbol of the living, incorruptible god! 
(560) Guard me, Silence, NECHTHEIRTHANMELOY!" Then 
make a long hissing sound, next make a popping sound, and say: 
see the gods looking graciously upon you and no longer rushing at 
you, but rather going about in their own order of affairs. So when 
you see that the world above is clear (570) and circling, and that 
none of the gods or angels is threatening you, expect to hear a great 
crash of thunder, so as to shock you. Then say again: "Silence! 
Silence! (the prayer) I am a star, wandering about with you, and 
shining forth out of (575) the deep, OXY^o O XERTHEYTH." 
Immediately after you have said these things the sun's disk will be 
expanded. And after you have said the second prayer, where there 
is "Silence! Silence!" and the accompanying words, make a hissing 
sound twice and a popping sound twice, and immediately you will 
see (580) many five- pronged stars coming forth from the disk and 
filling all the air. Then say again: "Silence! Silence!" 

And when the disk is open, you will see the tireless circle, and the 
fiery doors shut tight (585). At once close your eyes and recite the 
following prayer. The third prayer: 

"Give ear to me, hearken to me, whose mother is 

, O Lord, you who have bound together with your breath 

the fiery bars of the fourfold (590) root, O Fire- Walker, 

PENTITEROYNI, Light-Maker (others: Encloser), SEMESILAM, 
Fire-Breather, PSYRINPHEY, Fire-Feeler, lAO, Light- Breather, 
OAI,ii Fire-Dehghter, ELOYRE, Beautiful Light, AZAI, Aion, 
ACHBA, (595) Light-Master, PEPPER PREPEMPIPI, Fire-Body, 
PHNOYENIOCH, Light-Giver, Fire-Sower, AREI EIKITA, Fire- 
Driver, GALLABALBA, Light-Forcer, AIO, Fire-Whirler, 
PYRICHIBOOSELV, Light-Mover, SANCHEROB, Thunder-Shaker 
(600), IE OE lOEIO, Glory-Light, BEEGENETEE Light-Increaser, 
ARENBARAZEI MARMARENTEY, Star-Tamer: open for me, 
because, (605) on account of the pressing and bitter and inexorable 
necessity, I invoke the immortal names, living and honored, which 
never pass into mortal nature and are not declared in articulate 
speech by human tongue or mortal speech (610) or mortal sound: 

Say all these things with fire and spirit, until completing the first 
utterance; then, similarly, begin the second, until you complete the 
(620) seven immortal gods of the world. When you have said these 
things, you will hear thundering and shaking in the surrounding 
realm; and you will likewise feel yourself being agitated. Then say 
again: "Silence!" (the prayer) Then open your eyes and you will see 
the doors (625) open and the world of the gods which is within the 
doors, so that from the pleasure and joy of the sight your spirit 

runs ahead and ascends. So stand still and at once draw breath 
from the divine into yourself, while you look intently. Then when 
(630) your soul is restored, say: "Come, Lord, ARCHANDARA 

When you have said this, the rays will turn toward you; look at the 
center of them. For when (635) you have done this, you will see a 
youthful god, beautiful in appearance, with fiery hair, and in a 
white tunic and a scarlet cloak, and wearing a fiery crown. At once 
greet him with the fire-greeting: 

"Hail, O Lord, Great Power, Great Might, (640) King, Greatest of 
gods, Helios, the Lord of heaven and earth, God of gods: mighty is 
your breath; mighty is your strength, O Lord. If it be your will, 
announce me to the supreme god, the one who has begotten and 
made you: that a man ~ 

I, whose mother is (645) who was born from 

the mortal womb of and from the fluid of semen, and 

who, since he has been born again from you today, has become 
immortal out of so many myriads in this hour according to the 
wish of god the exceedingly good— resolves to worship (650) you, 
and prays with all his human power (that you may take along with 
you the horoscope of the day and hour today, which has the name 
THRAPSIARI MORIROK, that he may appear and give revelation 
during the good hours, EORO RORE ORRI ORlOR ROR ROI (655) 

After you have said these things, he will come to the celestial pole, 
and you will see him walking as if on a road. Look intently and 

make a long bellowing sound, like a horn, releasing all your breath 
and straining your sides; and kiss (660) the amulets and say, first 
toward the right: "Protect me, PROSYMERI!" After saying this, you 
will see the doors thrown open, and seven virgins coming from 
deep within, dressed in linen garments, and with the faces of asps. 
They are called the Fates (665) of heaven, and wield golden wands. 
When you see them, greet them in this manner: 

"Hail, O seven Fates of heaven, O noble and good virgins, O sacred 
ones and companions of MINIMIRROPHOR, O most holy 
guardians of the four pillars I^^ 

(670) Hail to you, the first, CHREPSENTHAES! 
Hail to you, the second, MENESCHEES! 
Hail to you, the third, MECHRAN! 
Hail to you, the fourth, ARARMACHES! 
Hail to you, the fifth, ECHOMMIE! 
Hail to you, the sixth, TICHNONDAES! 
Hail to you, the seventh, EROY ROMBRIES! 

There also come forth another seven gods, who have the faces of 
black bulls, in linen (675) loin-cloths, and in possession of seven 
golden diadems. They are the so-called Pole-Lords of heaven, 
whom you must greet in the same manner, each of them with his 
own name: "Hail, O guardians of the pivot, O sacred and brave 
youths, who turn (680) at one command the revolving axis of the 
vault of heaven, who send out thunder and lightning and jolts of 
earthquakes and thunderbolts against the nations of impious 
people, but to me, who am pious and god-fearing, you send health 
and soundness of body (685), and acuteness of hearing and seeing. 

and calmness in the present good hours of this day, O my Lords 
and powerfully ruling Gods! 

Hail to you, the first, AIERONTHI! 
Hail to you, the second, MERCHEIMEROS! 
Hail to you, the third, ACHRICHIOYR! 
(690) Hail to you, the fourth, MESARGILTO! 
Hail to you, the fifth, CHICHROALITHO! 
Hail to you, the sixth, ERMICHTHATHOPS! 
Hail to you, the seventh, EORASICHE!" 

Now when they take their place, here and there, in order, look in 
the air and you will see lightning-bolts going down, and lights 
flashing (695), and the earth shaking, and a god descending, a god 
immensely great, having a bright appearance youthful, golden- 
haired, with a white tunic and a golden crown and trousers,i3 and 
holding in his right hand a golden (700) shoulder of a young bull: 
this is the Beari4 which moves and turns heaven around, moving 
upward and downward in accordance with the hour. Then you will 
see lightning-bolts leaping from his eyes and stars from his body. 
And at once (705) produce a long bellowing sound, straining your 
belly, that you may excite the five senses: bellow long until the 
conclusion, and again kiss the amulets, and say: "MOKRIMO 
PHERIMOPHERERI, life of me, " stay! 

Dwell in (710) my soul! Do not abandon me, for one entreats you, 

And gaze upon the god while bellowing long; and greet him in this 

"Hail, O Lord, O Master of the water! 
Hail, O Founder of the earth! 
Hail, O Ruler of the wind! 

O Bright Lightener (715) , PROPROPHEGGE EMETHIRI 

Give revelation o Lord, concerning the matter of . 

0 Lord, while being born again, I am passing away; while growing 
and having grown, (720) I am d)dng; while being born from a life- 
generating birth, I am passing on, released to death— as you have 
founded, as you have decreed, and have established the mystery, 


After you have said these things, he will immediately respond with 
a revelation (725). Now you will grow weak in soul and will not be 
in yourself, when he answers you. He speaks the oracle to you in 
verse, and after speaking he will depart. But you remain silent, 
since you will be able to comprehend all these matters by yourself; 
for at a later time (730) you will remember infallibly the things 
spoken by the great god, even if the oracle contained myriads of 
verses. If you also wish to use a fellow-initiate, so that he alone 
may hear with you the things spoken, let him remain pure together 
With you for (735) days, and abstain from meat and the bath. And 
even if you are alone, and you undertake the things communicated 
by the god, you speak as though prophesying in ecstasy. And if you 
also wish to show him, then judge whether he is completely worthy 
as a man (740): treat him just as if in his place you were being 
judged in the matter of immortalization, and whisper to him the 
first prayer, of which the beginning is "First origin of my origin. 

AEEIOYO." And say the successive things as an initiate, over his 
(745) head, in a soft voice, so that he may not hear, as you are 
anointing his face with the mystery. This immortahzation takes 
place three times a year. And if anyone, O child, after the teaching, 
wishes to disobey, then for him it will no longer (750) be in effect. 
Instruction for the ritual: 

Take a sun-scarab which has twelve rays,i6 and make it fall into a 
deep, turquoise cup, at the time when the moon is invisible;^^ put 
in together with it the seed of the lotometra, (755) and honey; and, 
after grinding it, prepare a cake. And at once you will see it (viz. the 
scarab) moving forward and eating; and when it has consumed it, 
it immediately dies. Pick it up and throw it into a glass vessel of 
excellent rose oil, as much as you wish; and (760) spreading sacred 
sand in a pure manner, set the vessel on it, and say the formula 
over the vessel for seven days, while the sun is in mid-heaven: 

"I have consecrated you, that your essence may be useful to me, to 

alone, IE lA E EE OY EIA, that you may prove useful to 

me (765) alone. For I am PHOR PHORA PHOS PHOTIZAAS 

On the seventh day pick up the scarab, and bury it with Myrrh and 
wine from Mendes and fine linen; and put it away in a flourishing 
bean-field. (770) Then, after you have entertained and feasted 
together, put away, in a pure manner, the ointment for the 
immortalization. If you want to show this to someone else, take the 
juice of the herb called "kentritis," and smear it, along with rose oil, 
over the eyes of the one you wish; (775) and he will see so clearly 

that he will amaze you. I have not found a greater spell than this in 
the world. Ask the god for what you want, and he will give to you.^^ 

Now presentationi9 before the great god is like this: obtaining the 
above-mentioned herb (780) kentritis, at the conjunction (viz. of 
the sun and the moon)2o occurring in the Lion, take the juice and, 
after mixing it with honey and myrrh, write on a leaf of the persea 
tree the eight-letter formula, as is mentioned below. And keeping 
yourself pure for three days before, set out early in the morning 
toward the East, (785) lick off the leaf while you show it to the Sun, 
and then he (viz. the sun god) will listen to you attentively. Begin to 
consecrate this at the divine new moon,2i in the Lion. Now this is 
the formula: 

"I EE 00 lAI." 

Lick this up, so that you may be protected; and rolling up the leaf 
(790) , throw it into the rose oil. Many times have I used the spell, 
and have wondered greatly. But the god said to me: "Use the 
ointment no longer, but, after casting it into the river, consult 
while wearing the great mystery (795) of the scarab revitalized 
through the twenty-five living birds, 22 and consult once a month, at 
full moon, instead of three times a year." The kentritis plant grows 
from the month of Payni, in the regions of the (800) black earth, 
and is similar to the erect verbena. This is how to recognize it: an 
ibis wing is dipped at its black tip and smeared with the juice, and 
the feathers fall off when touched. After the Lord (805) pointed 
this out, it was found in Menelaitis in Phalagry, at the river banks, 
near the Besas plant. 

it is of a single stem, and reddish down to the root; and the leaves 
are rather crinkled and have fruit (810) like the tip of wild 
asparagus. It is similar to the so-called talapes, like the wild beet. 
Now the amulets require this procedure: copy the right one onto 
the skin (815) of a black sheep, with myrrh-ink, and after tying it 
with sinews of the same ani- mal, put it on; and copy the left one 
onto the skin of a white sheep, and use the same procedure. The 
left one is very full of "PROSTHYMERI" (820), and has this text: 
"So speaking, he drove through the trench the single-hoofed 
horses." (II. X. 564) "And men gasping among grievous 
slaughters." (II. X, 521) "And they washed off their profuse sweat in 
the sea." (II. X. 572) "You will dare to lift up your mighty spear 
against Zeus." (IL. VIII.424) (825) Zeus went up the mountain 
with a golden bullock and a silver dagger. Upon all he bestowed a 
share, only to Amara did he not give, but he said: "Let go of what 
you have, and then you will receive, PSINOTHER NOPSITHER 
THERNOPSI" (and so on, as you like). (830) "So Ares suffered, 
when Otos and mighty Epialtes^s ,,, him. (II. V. 385) spell for 
restraining anger: 'You will dare to lift up your mighty spear 
against Zeus." (II. VIII.424) For friends: "Let ... seize ... , lest we 
become a source of joy for our enemies." (II. X. 193) 


1. Or "spell"; note also, below, the translation of logos [lambda 
omicron gamma omicron sigma ~ RE] with "prayer." 

2. Cf. On the Eighth and Ninth (Nag Hammadi Codex VI, tractate 
6), page 60, line 20. With regard to the Mithras Liturgy in general. 

cf. this tractate as well as another Hermetic tractate, Corpus 
Hermeticum XIIL 

3. "Spirit," "breath," "wind": pneuma [pi nu eta upsilon mu alpha ~ 
RE] as one of the four elements. 

4. Here the initiate was supposed to introduce his own name and 
that of his mother. This formula appears several times in the 

5. one of the several variant readings suggested by a scribe. 

6. Preisendanz takes the ina-clauses [iota nu alpha ~ RE] as 
independent clauses. 

7. Apparently used here as part of the magical utterance, 
enarchomai [eta nu alpha rho chi omicron mu alpha iota ~ RE] is 
Greek for "I begin." 

8. Moving, revolving heavenly bodies, which may influence human 
affairs and preside over the days. 

9. or, with slightly different punctuation: "For you will see it 
hanging like a pipe from the sun's disk, toward the regions 
westward, boundless as an east wind, if it be assigned to the 
regions of the East; but if the . other (viz. the west wind) be 
assigned, similarly to its own (555) regions, you will see the reverse 
of the sight." 

10. Perhaps OXY [omicron xi upsilon ~ RE], "brightly." 

11. A permutation of the divine name lAO. cf. also AIO (below, line 

12. The reference to the four pillars supporting heaven seems 
Egyptian. On the seven Fates of heaven, cf. [line of text missing in 
copy ~ RE] 

13. Eastern [particularly, Persian ~ RE] attire. 

14. The constellation called the Great Bear was known in Egypt as 
the Bull, or the Bull's Foreleg. Cf. also, with Dieterich, the place of 
the bull in Mithraism. 

15. According to Dieterich, here ends the Mithras Liturgy per se. 

16. The scarab, the Egyptian god Kheper, represented the rising 

17. Literally "at the seizure of the moon." This interesting phrase 
probably designates the new moon. 

18. For examples of Jewish and Christian parallels to this familiar 
statement, cf. Matthew 7:7, and H. Strack and P. Billerbeck, 
Kommentar zum Neuen Testament aus Talmud und Midrasch 
(Muenchen: Beck, 1926), vol. 1, 45off. 

19. Presentation or introduction to the great god for the sake of 
attaining friendship and communion with the god. 

20. That is, at the new moon. 

21. The new moon according to the heavens, made by god, in 
distinction from the new moon according to the calendar, made by 

22. This allusion to the birds is somewhat obscure. 

23- [Sic; but this giant's name is usually given as Ephialtes. He and 
his brother Otos imprisoned Ares in a bronze jar, ~ RE] 

A Mithraic Ritual 
G.R.S. Mead 


The last little volume gave the reader a brief outline of what is 
known of the cult of Mithra and the spread of the Mithriac 
Mysteries in the Western world. We have now to deal with a 
Mithriac Ritual of the most instructive and intensely interesting 
character, which introduces us to the innermost rite of the carefully 
guarded secrets of the Mithriaca. 

This Ritual is all the more precious in that our knowledge of the 
Liturgies of the ancient Pagan cults of the West is of the scantiest 
nature. A few fragments only remain, mostly in the form of hymns; 
whereas the Ritual before us is complete, and the only complete 
one so far discovered. Dieterich calls it a {9} Liturgy; but a Liturgy 
is a service in which several take part, whereas it is plain that our 
Ritual was a secret and solemn inner rite for one person only. 

The credit of unearthing it from the obscurity in which it was 
buried, and of conclusively demonstrating its parent-age, is due to 
Dieterich; for though Cumont in his great work quotes several 
passages from the unrevised text, he does so only to reject it as a 
genuine Mithriac document. 

It is dug out of the chaos of the great Paris Magic Papyrus 574 
(Supplement grec de la Bibliotheque Rationale), the date of which 
is fixed with every probability as the earliest years of the fourth 
century A.D.. The original text of the Ritual has, however, been 

plainly worked over by a school of Egyptian magicians, who 
inserted most of the now unintelligible words and names (ashma 
ovomata, nomina Barbara, nomina arcana), and vowel- 
combinations and permutations (voces {10} mysticas), of their 
theurgic language, which were known in Egj^t as "words of 

The subject is naturally one of the most obscure that is known to 
scholarship, and so far no one has thrown any real light on it. That, 
however, there was once in Egypt and Chalde^e a science of this 
"nature language," or "tongue of the gods," which subsequently 
passed into the superstition of a purely mechanical tradition, is 
highly probable; and one means towards a recovery of the 
understanding of its nature is a study of the still living tradition of 
mantra-vidya, or the science of mantrah, or mystic utterances and 
invocations, in India of to-day. 

When these evidently later insertions are removed, there still 
remains a certain number of nomina arcana and mystica voces 
which cannot be removed without doing violence to the text. It, 
therefore, follows that these stand as part of the Ritual. Did they, 
however, form part {11} of the original Ritual? The original Ritual 
must have contained, one would have imagined, Persian names. 
But the distinguished scholar Bartholomae, whom Dieterich has 
called in to his assistance, declares that nothing Persian can be 
made out of them without violent changes of the letters. But why, it 
might be asked, should not the original Persian Ritual have 
contained nomina arcane taken over from Chaldeae? However this 
may be, our Greek Ritual evidently contained certain names and 
words "of power," before it reached the hands of the Egyptian 

magical school who inserted the majority of the mantric formulae 
in our present text. 

The latter are, of course, entirely eliminated from the translation, 
while the former are marked by obeli. 

On the whole the most likely supposition is that we have before us 
(when the latter insertions are removed) a Ritual translated or 
paraphrased into Greek, and adapted for use in Egypt, {12} and 
that, too, for picked members of the most esoteric circles. For our 
Ritual is not for the initiation of a neophyte of the lower grades, but 
for a candidate who is to self-initiate himself in the solitary 
mystery of apotheosis, whereby he became a true " Father " of the 
inmost rites, one possessing face to face knowledge and gnosis. 

Dieterich thinks that this Greek ritual was first made in Egj^t 
about 100-150 A.D., and was used in the Mysteries until 200 A.D. 
It was then that it got into the hands of the magical school, and was 
included, together with many other pieces, some of them similarly 
treated, in a collection which was copied on the papyrus which we 
now possess, about 300 A.D. 

It is exceedingly probable, therefore, that we have in this Ritual of 
initiation certain theurgic practices of Egyptian tradition combined 
with the traditional Mithraic invocations done into Greek. 

As to the chanting of the vowels, it is {13} of interest to learn from 
Demetrius, On Interpretation, c. 71 (p.20 Raderm.), that: "In 
Egypt the priests hymn the Gods by means of the seven vowels, 
chanting them in order; instead of the pipe and lute the musical 
chanting of these letters is heard. So that if you were to take away 

this accompaniment you would simply remove the whole melody 
and music of the utterance (logos)." 

The statement of Nicomachus of Gerasa the "musician " and mystic 
(second century A.D.), is still clearer; for he not only tells us about 
the vowels and consonants, but also of certain other " unarticulated 
" sounds which were used by the theurgists, and which are directed 
to be used in the rubrics of our Ritual. In speaking of the vowels or 
"sounding letters " - each of the seven spheres being said to give 
forth a different vowel or nature-tone - Nicomachus (c. 6) informs 
us that these root-sounds in nature are combined with certain 
material elements, as they are in spoken speech with the {14} 
consonants; but " just as the soul with the body, and music with the 
lyre- strings, the one produces living creatures and the other 
musical modes and tunes, so do those root-sounds give birth to 
certain energic and initiatory powers of divine operations. It is 
because of this that whenever theurgists are awe- struck in any 
such operation, they make invocation symbolically by means of 
"hissings" and "poppings" and un-articulated and discordant 

The exact translation of the Greek terms, surigmoj amd poppusmoj 
is somewhat of a difficulty. The first denotes a shrill piping sound 
or hissing, the Latin stridor. It is used of such different sounds as 
the rattling of ropes, the trumpeting of elephants and a singing in 
the ears. The second is used of a clicking or clucking with the lips 
and tongue, and of the whistling, cheeping, chirruping, warbling or 
trilling of birds. It is used of the smack of a loud kiss and also of the 
cry "hush." Both Aristophanes and Pliny {15} tell us that it was 

used as a protection against, or rather a reverent greeting of, 
lightning; and the latter adds that this was a universal custom. 

The English " pop" perhaps represents the idea of the Greek most 
nearly. In the Ritual, however, I have rendered it by "puff' as it is 
connected with breath. It is evident that we have here to do with 
certain nature-sounds, which have disappeared from articulate 
speech, except in some primitive languages such as the "clicking" 
of the Zulus. It pertains to the art of onomatopiia or 
onomatopoiesis, or the forming of words expressive of natural 
sounds. The ' root-idea seems to be that in mystic operations 
designed to bring man in touch with the hidden powers of nature, 
the language of nature must be employed. 

As we have said, the Ritual before us is not of the nature of a 
church or temple service; on the contrary, it contains directions for 
a solitary sacrament, in which the whole effort of the celebrant {16} 
is to stir into activity, and bring into conscious operation, his own 
hidden nature or the root-substance of his being. It is a yoga-rite 
(unio mystica), or act for union, in which the physical breath, the 
etheric currents, and the psychic aurae, or life-breaths, or prana's 
work together with the inbreathing of the Great Breath, or Holy 
Spirit, or Atmic Energy. 

It should therefore prove of very great interest to many who have 
of late heard much concerning yoga, both in its higher 
contemplative modes, and also in its modes of deep and psychic 
breathing (hatha-yoga); for it may be news to many that in the 
ancient West, especially in Egypt, there was a high art of this 
selfsame yoga which has been developed so elaborately in India. 

We will now give a translation of the Ritual and then proceed to 
comment on it. The prayers and utterances are printed in italics, 
and the rubrics or instructions in Roman type. {17} 

The Ritual 



O Providence, O Fortune, bestow on me Thy Grace - imparting 
these the Mysteries a Father only may hand on, and that, too, to a 
Son alone - his Immortality - [a Son] initiate, worthy of this our 
Craft, with which Sun Mithras, the Great God, commanded me to 
be endowed by His Archangel; so that I, Eagle [as I am, by mine 
own self\ alone, may soar to Heaven, and contemplate all things. 



1. O Primal Origin of my origination; Thou Primal Substance of 
my substance; First Breath of breath, the breath that is in me; 
First Fire, God-given for the Blending of the Mendings in me, 
[First Fire] of fire in me; First Water of [my] water, the water in 
me; Primal Earth-essence of the earthy essence in me; Thou 
Perfect Body of me - N. N. son of N. N., son of N.N. (fem.) - 
fashioned by Honoured Arm and Incorruptible Right Hand, in 
World that's lightless, yet radiant with Light, [in World] that's 
soulless, yet filled full of Soul! 

2. If, verity, it may seem good to you, translate me, now held by 
my lower nature, unto the Generation that is free from Death; in 
order that, beyond the insistent Need that presses on me, I may 
have Vision of the Deathless Source, by virtue of the Deathless 
Spirit, by virtue of the Deathless Water, by virtue of the 
[Deathless] Solid, and [by virtue of\ the [Deathless] Air; in order 
that 1 may become re-born in Mind; in order that i may become 
initiate, and that the Holy Breath may breathe in me; in order 
that 1 may admire the Holy Fire; that i may see the Deep of the 
[New] Dawn, the Water that doth cause [the Soul] to thrill; and 
that the. Life-bestowing JEther which surrounds [all things] may 
give me. Hearing. 

3. For 1 am to behold to-day with Deathless Eyes - 1, mortal, bom 
of mortal womb, but [now] made better by the Might of Mighty 
Power, yea, by the Incorruptible Right Hand - [I am to see to-day] 
by virtue of the Deathless Spirit the DeathlessMon, the master of 
the Diadeins of Fire -I with pure purities [now] Purified, the 
human soul-power of me subsisting for a little while in purity; 
which [power] I shall again receive transmitted unto me beyond 
the insistent Bitterness that presses on me. Necessity whose debts 
can never go unpaid - 1, N. N., son of N, N. (fern.) - according to 
the Ordinance of God that naught can ever change. 

4. For that it is beyond my reach that, born beneath the sway of 
Death, I should [unaided] soar into the Height, together with the 
golden sparklings of the Brilliancy that knows no Death. 

5. Stay still, O nature doomed to Perish, [nature] of men subject to 
Death! And straightway let me pass beyond the Need implacable 
that presses on me; for that I am His Son; I breathe; I am! 



1. Take from the [Sun-]rays breath, inhahng thrice [as deeply] as 
thou canst; and thou shalt see thyself being raised aloft, and 
soaring towards the Height, so that thou seem'st to be in midst of 

2. Thou shalt hear naught, nor man nor beast; nor shalt thou see 
aught of the sights upon the earth, in that same hour; but all things 
thou shalt see will be immortal. 

3. For thou shalt see, in that same day and hour, the Disposition of 
the Gods - the Ruling Gods ascending heavenwards, the other 
ones descending. And through his Disk - the God's, my Father's - 
there shall be seen the Way-of-going of the Gods accessible to sight. 

4. And in like fashion also [shall be seen] the Pipe, as it is called, 
whence comes the Wind in service [for the day]. For thou shalt see 
as though it were a Pipe depending from His Disk; and toward the 
regions Westward, as though it were an infinite East Wind. But if 
the other Wind, toward the regions of the East' should be in service, 
in the like fashion shalt thou see, toward the regions of that [side,] 
the converse of the sight. 

5. And thou shalt see the Gods gazing intently on thee and bearing 
down upon thee. Then straightway lay thy dexter finger on thy lips 
and say: 



Silence! Silence! Silence! 

The Symbol of the Living God beyond Decay. 

Protect me, Silence! t! 

Next "hiss" forth long: Sss! Sss! 

Then "puff saying: f! 

And thereon shalt thou see the Gods gazing benignly on thee, and 
no longer bearing down upon thee, but proceeding on the proper 
order of their doings. 



When, then, thou see'st the Upper Cosmos clean and clear, with no 
one of the Gods (or Angels) bearing down on thee, expect to hear a 
mighty thunder-clap so as to startle thee. 

Then say again: 

1. O Silence! Silence! 

/ am a Star, whose Course is as your Course, shining anew from 
out the depth 20.opt'>i'. 

Upon thy saying this, straightway His disk will start expanding. 

2. And after thou hast said the second utterance - to wit, twice 
Silence and the rest - "hiss" twice, and "puff' twice; and 
straightway shalt thou see a mighty host of stars, five-pointed, 
emerging from His Disk, and filling all the Air. 

3. Then say again: 
O Silence! Silence! 

And when His Disk is opened [fully] out, thou shalt behold an 
infinite Encircling and Doors of Fire fast closed. 

Straightway set going then the utterance that follows, closing thy 


1. Hear me, give ear to me - N. N., son of N. N. (fem.) - O Lord, 
who with Thy Breath hast closed the Fiery Bars of Heaven; Twin- 
bodied; Ruler of the Fire; Creator of the Light; O Holder of the 
Keys; Inbreather of the Fire; Fire-hearted One, whose Breath 
gives Light; Thou who dost joy in Fire; Beauteous of Light; O 
Lord of Light, whose Body is of Fire; Light-giver [and] Fire-sower; 
Fire-loosener, whose Life is in the Light; Fire-whirler, who sett'st 
the Light in motion; Thou Thunder-rouser; O Thou Light-glory, 
Light-increaser; Controller of the Light Empyrean; O Thou Star- 

2. Oh! Open unto me! For on account of this, the bitter and 
implacable Necessity that presses on me, I do invoke Thy 
Deathless Names, innate with Life, most worshipful, that have not 
yet descended unto mortal nature, nor have been made articulate 
by human tongue, or cry or tone of man: 

eed • oeed • ido • oe • eed • eed • oeed • ido • oeee • dee • doe • ie • ed • o 
6 ' oe- ieo • oe • ooe • ieooe • ieeo • ee • io • oe • ioe • bed • eoe • oeo • 6i 
e ' diced • oi • in • eoe • due • ed • oee • edeia • aeaeea • eeee • eee • eee 
' ied • eed • oeeeoe • eed • cud • oe • eid • ed • de • de • de • ee • ooouide! 

3. Utter all these with Fire and Spirit once unto the end; and then 
begin again a second time, until thou hast completed [all] the 
Seven Immortal Gods of Cosmos. 

When thou hast uttered them, thunders and crashings shalt thou 
hear in the Surround, and feel thyself a-shake with every crash. 
Then once more utter Silence! [and] the utterance [following it]. 

4. Thereon open thy eyes ; and thou shalt see the Doors thrown 
open, and the Cosmos of the Gods that is within the Doors; so that 
for joy and rapture of the sight thy Spirit runs to meet it, and soars 

Therefore, hold thyself steady, and, gazing steadily into thyself, 
draw breath from the Divine. 

When, then, thy Soul shall be restored, say: 



1. Draw nigh, OLord! 

Upon this utterance His Rays shall be turned on thee, and thou 
shalt be in midst of them. 

2, When, then, thou hast done this, thou shalt behold a God, in 
flower of age, of fairest beauty, [and] with Locks of Flame, in a 
white Tunic and a scarlet Mantle, wearing a Crown of Fire. 
Straightway salute Him with the Salutation of the Fire: 



1. Hail Lord! O Thou of mighty Power; O King of mighty Sway; 
Greatest of Gods; O Sun; Thou Lord of Heaven and Earth; O God 
of Gods! Strong is Thy Breath; strong is Thy Might! 

O Lord, if it seem good to Thee, make Thou announcement of me 
unto God Mosthigh, who hath begotten and created Thee ! 

2. For that a man - N.N., son of N.N. (fem.), born of the mortal 
womb of N.N. (fem.), and of spermatic ichor, yea, of this [ichor], 
which at Thy Hands to-day hath undergone the transmutation of 
re-birth -, one, from so many tens of thousands, transformed to 
immortality in this same hour, by God's good-pleasure, of God 
transcendent Good-, [a man, I say,] presumes to worship Thee, 
and supplicates with whatsoever power a mortal hath. 

3. Upon this utterance He shall come to the Pole, and thou shalt 
see Him moving round as on a path. 

Then gaze intently, and send forth a prolonged "bellowing," like to 
a horn-note, expelling the whole breath, with pressure on the ribs, 
and kiss the amulets, and say first to that upon the right: 


Protect me! t! 

When thou hast uttered this, thou shalt behold the Doors thrown 
open, and, issuing from the Depth, Seven Virgins, in byssus-robes, 
with serpent-faces, and golden sceptres in their hands. These are 
they who are the so-called Heaven's Fortunes (Tychai). 

When thou dost see these things, make salutation thus: 



1. Hail Heaven's Seven Fortunes, Virgins august and good, ye 
sacred ones who live and eat with f! Ye holiest Protectors of the 
Four Supports! 

Hail thou, the First, t! 

Hail thou, the Second, f! 

Hail thou, the Third, f! 

Hail thou, the Fourth, f! 

Hail thou, the Fifth, f! 

HaU thou, the Sixth, t! 
Hail thou, the Seventh, t! 

2. There come forth others, too - Seven Gods, with faces of black 
bulls, in linen loincloths, with seven golden fillets on their heads. 
These are the so-called Heaven's Pole-lords. 

And in like fashion unto each of them thou must make salutation 
with his special name. 



1. Hail Guardians of the Pivot, ye, sacred sturdy Youths, who all, 
at once, revolve the spinning Axis of Heaven's Circle, ye who let 
loose the thunder and the lightning, and earthquake-shocks and 
thunder-bolts upon the hosts of impious folk, but [who bestow] on 
me, who pious am and worshipper of God, good-health, and 
soundness of my frame in every Part, and Proper stretch of 
hearing and of sight, and calm, in the now Present good-hours of 
this day, O mighty Ruling Lords and Gods of me! 

Hail thou, the First, t! 

Hail thou, the Second, t! 

Hail thou, the Third, f! 

Hail thou, the Fourth, f! 

Hail thou, the Fifth, f! 

HaU thou, the Sixth, t! 
Hail thou, the Seventh, t! 

2. Now when they [all] are present in their order, here and there, 
gaze in the Air intently, and thou shalt see lightnings down- 
flashing, and lights a-quiver, and the earth a-shake; and [then] a 
God descending, [a God] transcending vast, of radiant Presence, 
with golden Locks, in flower of age, [clad] in a Robe of brightness, 
with Crown of gold [upon His Head], and Garments [on His Legs], 
holding in His Right Hand the golden Shoulder of the Calf. 

This latter is the Bear that moves the Heaven[-dome], and changes 
its direction, now up now down, according to the hour. 

Then shalt thou see lightnings leap from His Eyes and from His 
Body stars. 

3. Straightway send forth a "bellowing" prolonged, with belly- 
pressure, to start thy senses going all together-prolonged unto the 
very end, kissing again the amulets and saying: 



t , [O Lord] of me - N. N. - abide, with Me, within my Soul! Oh! 
leave me not! For f bids thee [remain]. 

And gaze intently on the God, with "bellowing" prolonged, and 
thus salute Him: 


Hail Lord, Thou Master of the Water! Hail, Founder of the Earth! 
Hail, Prince of Breath! 

O Lord, being born again, I Pass away in being made Great, and, 
having been made Great, I die. 

Being born from out the state ofbirth-and-death that giveth birth 
to [mortal] lives, I now, set free. Pass to the state transcending 
birth, as Thou hast stablished it, according as Thou hast ordained 
and made, the Mystery. 

The Demotic Magical Papyrus of 
London and Leiden 

COL. I. 

(i) [A vessel-divination which a physician ?] of the nome of Pemze 

[gave to me]. Formula: (2) '[O god N.] the border of whose 

girdle (?) rests in Peremoun (?), whose face is like a spark (3) 

of(?) an obscene(?) cat, whose toes(?) are a rearing uraeus (4) 

quick[-ly ?]; put light and spaciousness in my vessel (5) Open 

to me the earth, open to me the Underworld, open to me the abyss, 

(6) great of bronze of Alkhah, ye gods that are in heaven, 

that are exalted, come ye (7) [put ?] light and spaciousness 

in my vessel, my (8) [this] boy, whose face is bent over this 

vessel (oil) ; cause to succeed (9) for this vessel-divination 

is the vessel-divination of Isis, when she sought (10) come in to 

me, O my compeller (?), for everything (11) '. and cause the 

eyes of this child to be opened to them all, (12) for I am the 

Pharaoh Lion-ram; Ram-lion-lotus is my name (13) to thee 

here to-day, for I am Sit-ta-ko, Setem is my name, Setem (14) [is 
my true name, &c.] Hrenoute, Lapptotha, Laxantha, Sa-(ij)(risa, 

&c.] Bolbouel (bis), Louteri, (Klo-)Kasantra, laho (16) [is my 

name, &c„ Balkam the] dread (?) one of heaven, Ablanathanalba, 
the gryphon (17) [of the shrine of God, &c.].' [You] say it, drawling 
(?) with, your voice: 'O beautiful oxherd, my compeller, 

(18) ask thee about here to-day: and do thou cause the eyes 

of this boy to be opened (19) and do thou, protect this boy 

whose face is bent down [over this (20) vessel] of god, lord of 

earth, the survivor (?) of the earth, lord of earth . . .. (21) I 

am Hor-Amon that sitteth at this vessel-divination here to-day 

(22) this vessel-divination here to-day; Marikhari, thou . . .. 

(23) and that they tell me my inquiry. Say to them (bis) "O 

holy gods of the abyss (24) , , , , [I am] , ... of earth by name, under 

the soles [of] whose [feet ?] the gods of Egypt are placed (25) 

thar, for I am. Ta-pishtehei of earth by name (26) preserve 

thee, O Pharaoh, Pashamei that resteth at the mouth (?) 

(27) these shoulders of real gold. Truth is in (?) my mouth, 

honey (28) [is in my lips ?] Ma . . . tha for I am Stel, laho. 

Earth-opener." ' 


(1) You say to the boy 'Open your eyes'; when he opens his eyes and 
sees the light, you make him cry out, (3) saying 'Grow (bis), O light, 
come forth (bis), O light, nse(bis), O light, ascend (bis), O light, 
thou who art without,(3) come in.' If he opens his eyes and does 
not see the light, you make him close his eyes, (4) you call to him 

formula: 'O darkness, remove thyself from before him (sic) ! O light, 
bring the light, in to me ! (5) Pshoi that is in the abyss, bring in the 
light to me! O Osiris, who is in the Nesheme-boat, bring in the light 
to me! (6) these four winds that are without, bring in the light to 
me! O thou in whose hand is the moment (?) that belongeth to 
these hours (7) bring in the light to me! Anubis, the good oxherd, 
bring in the light to me! for thou (8) shalt give protection (?) to me 
here to-day. For I am Horus son of Isis, the good son of Osiris; 
thou shalt bring the gods of the place (9) of judgement, and thou 

shalt cause them to do my business, and they shall make my affair 
proceed; Netbeou, thou shalt cause them to do it. (lo) For [I am ?] 
Touramnei, Amnei, A-a, Mes not see the light, you ma~e him close 
his eyes, (4) you call to him again; 

formula: 'O darkness, remove thyself from before him (sic)! O light, 
bring the light, in to me! (5) Pshoi that is in the abyss, "bring in the 
light to me! O Osiris, who is in the Nesheme-boat, bring in the light 
tome? (6) these four winds that are without, bring in die light to 
me! O thou in whose hand is the moment (?) that belongeth to 
these hours (7) bring in the light: to me I Anubis, the good oxherd, 
bring in the light to me! for thou (8) shalt give protection (?) to me 
here to-day. For I am Horus son of Isis, the good son of Osiris; 
thou shalt bring the gods of the place (9) of judgement, and thou 
shalt cause them to do my business, and they shall make my affair 
proceed; Netbeou, thou shalt cause them to do it. (10) For [I am ?] 
Touramnei, Amnei, A-a, Mes (bis), Ornouorf (bis), Ornouorf (bis), 
Pahorof, (11). . . . Pahrof, lo, a little(?) king, Touhor; let this child 
prosper, whose face is bent down to this (12) oil [and thou shalt] 
escort (?) Souchos to me until he come forth. Setem is my name, 
Setem is my correct name. For I am (13) L[ot], M[oulo]t, 
Toulot.Tat, Peintat is my correct name. O great god whose name is 
great, (14) appear to this child without alarming or deceiving, 

You utter these (15) charms seven times, you make him open his 

If the light is good and he says 'Anubis is coming in,' you call before 
him (Anubis). 

(i6) Formula: ' O Riz Muriz, O To-ur-to, O this beautiful male born 
of Herieou, the daughter of the Neme, (17) Come to me, for thou 
art this lotus-flower that came forth from in the lotus of Pnastor, 
and that illuminates the whole earth; (18) hail! Anubis, come to me, 
the High, the Mighty, the Chief over the mysteries of those in the 
Underworld, the Pharaoh of those in Amenti, the Chief Physician, 
(19) the fair [son ?] of Osiris, he whose face is strong among the 
gods, thou manifestest thyself in the Underworld before the hand 
of Osiris. Thou servest (20) the souls of Abydos, for they all live by 
thee, these souls (namely) those of the sacred Underworld. Come 
to the earth, show thyself to me (21) here to-day. Thou art Thoth, 
thou art he that came forth from the heart of the great 
Agathodaemon, the father of the fathers of all the gods; come to 
the mouths (22) of my vessel to-day and do thou tell me answer in 
truth to everything that I shall inquire about, without falsehood 
therein; for I am Isis (23) the Wise, the words of whose mouth of 
mine (sic) come to pass.' 

Formula: seven times. You say to the boy ' Speak to Anubis, saying 
(24) "Go forth, bring in the gods." ' 

When he goes after them and brings them in, you ask the boy, 
sajdng ' Have the gods (25) come in?' If he says 'They have come' 
and you (sic) see them, you cry before them. 

Formula: ' Raise thyself for me (bis), Pshoi; raise thyself, Mera(26), 
the Great of Five, Didiou, Tenziou, do justice to me. Thoth, let 
creation (?) fill the earth with light, O (thou who art an) ibis in (27) 
his noble countenance, thou noble one that enters the heart, let 
truth be brought forth, thou great god whose name is great.' 

Say seven times. 

(28) You say to the boy 'Speak to Anubis, sajdng "Bring in a table 
for the gods and let them sit." ' 

When they (29) are seated you say 'Bring in a (jar of) wine, broach 
it for the gods; bring in some bread, let them eat, let them drink, 


(1) 'let them eat, let them drink, let them pass a festal day.' 

When they have finished, you speak to Anubis (sic) saying 'Dost 
thou make inquiry for me ?' If he says 'At once,' you say to him 'The 
god who will make my inquiry (2) to-day, let him stand up.' 

If he says 'He has stood up,' you say to him (i.e. the child) 'Say to 
Anubis "Carry off the things from the midst" '; you cry (3) before 
him (i.e. the god) instantly saying 'O Agathodaemon of to-day, lord 
of to-day, O thou whose (possession) these moments are!' 

You cause him (the boy) to say (4) to Anubis 'The god who will 
inquire for me today, let him tell me his name.' 

When he stands up and tells his name, you ask him (5) concerning 
everything that you wish. 
Its spirit-gathering. 

You take seven new bricks, before they have been moved so as to 
turn them (6) to the other face; you take them, you being pure, 
without touching them against anything on earth, and you place 
them in their manner in which they were (7) placed, again; and you 
place three tiles under the oil; and the other four tiles, you arrange 

them about the child without (8) touching any part of him against 
the ground; or seven palm-sticks, you treat them in this fashion 
also. And you take seven clean loaves (9) and arrange them around 
the oil, with seven lumps of salt, and you take a new dish and fill it 
with (10) clean Oasis oil and add to the dish gradually without 
producing cloudiness (?) so that it becomes clear (11) exceedingly; 
and you take a boy, pure, before he has gone with a woman, you 
speak down into his head (12) while he stands, previously, (to learn) 
whether he will be profitable in going to the vessel. 

If he is profitable, you make him lie on(?) his belly; (13) you clothe 
(?) him with a clean linen tunic (?), (you call down into his head), 
there being a girdle on the upper part (14) of the tunic; you utter 
this invocation that is above, down into his head, he gazing 
downwards (looking) into the oil, for seven times, his eyes being 

(15) closed. 

When you have finished, you make him open his eyes, you ask him 
about what you desire; you do it until the time of the seventh hour 
of the day. 

(16) The invocation that you utter down into his head previously to 
test him in his ears as to whether he will be profitable in going to 

(17) the vessel. 

Formula: 'Noble ibis, falcon, hawk, noble and mighty, let me be 
purified in the manner of the noble ibis, falcon, (18) hawk, noble 
and mighty.' 

You utter this down into his head for seven times; when you utter 
this, then (19) his ears speak. If his two ears speak, he is very good; 
if it be his right ear, (30) he is good; if it be his left ear, he is bad. 

Prescription for enchanting the vessel quickly so that the gods 
enter and tell (21) you answer truthfully. 

You put the shell of a crocodile's egg, or that which is inside it, on 
the flame; it will be enchanted instantly. 

Prescription to make them (22) speak: you put a frog's head on the 
brazier, then they speak. 

Prescription for bringing the gods in by force: you put the bile (23) 
of a crocodile with pounded frankincense on the brazier. 

If you wish to make them come in quickly again, you put stalks (?) 
of anise (?) on the brazier together with the (24) egg-shell as above, 
then the charrn works at once. 

If you wish to bring in a living man, you put sulphate of copper on 
the brazier, then he comes in. 

(25) If you wish to bring in a spirit, you put sa-u;r-stone with stone 
of ilkh on the brazier, then the spirit comes in. You put the heart 

(26) of a hyaena or a hare, excellent (bis). 

If you wish to bring in a drowned man, you put sea-Zcarab-stone (?) 
on the brazier. 

(27) If you wish to bring in a murdered (?) man, you put ass's dung 
with an amulet of Nephthys on the brazier, then he comes in. 

If you (28) wish to make (them) all depart, you put ape's dung on 
the brazier, then they all depart to their place, and you utter their 
spell of dismissal also. 

(29) If you wish to bring in a thief, you put crocus powder with 
alum on the brazier. 

The charm which you pronounce when you (30) dismiss them to 
their place: ' Good dispatch, joyful dispatch!' 

(31) If you wish to make the gods come in to you and that the 
vessel work its magic quickly, you take a scarab and drown it in the 
milk of a black cow (32) and put it on the brazier; then, it works 
magic in the moment named, and the light comes. 

(33) An amulet to be bound to the body of him who has the vessel, 
to cause it to work magic quickly. You take a band of linen of 
sixteen threads, four of white, four of [green], (34) four of blue, 
four of red, and make them into one band and stain, them with the 
blood of a hoopoe, and you bind it with a scarab in its attitude of 
the sun-god, (35) drowned, being wrapped in byssus, and you bind 
it to the body of the boy who has the vessel and it will work magic 
quickly; there being nothing [in the world better (?)] than it (?). 


(1) A scout-spreader (?), which the great god Imuthes makes. Its 
spirit-gathering. You bring a table of olive-wood (2) having four 

feet, upon (?) which no man on earth has ever sat, aad put it, it 
being clean, beside (?) you. When you wish (3) to make an inquiry- 
of-god(?) with it truthfully without falsehood, behold (this is) the 
manner of it. 

You put the table in a clean room (?) (4) in the midst of the place, it 
being near your head; you cover it with a tunic (?) from its head to 
its feet, and you put four bricks (5) under the table before it, one 
above another (?), there being a censer of clay before it (the table); 
and you put charcoal (6) of olive-wood on it (the censer) and put 
wild-goose fat pounded with myrrh and qs-ankh. and make them 
into balls (7) and put one on the brazier, and lay the remainder at 
your side (?), and pronounce this spell in Greek (?) speech to it - 
Formula - and you spend, the night without speaking (8) to any 
one on earth, and you lie down and you see the god in the likeness 
of a priest wearing fine linen and wearing (a) nose at his feet. (9) 'I 
invoke thee who art seated in the invisible darkness and who art in 
the midst (10) of the great gods sinking and receiving the sun's (11) 
rays and sending forth the luminous goddess Neboutosoualeth, (12) 
the great god Barzan Boubarzan Narzazouzan Barzabouzath, (13) 
the sun; send up to me this night thy archangel (14) 
Zebourthaunen; answer with truth, truthfully, without falsehood, 
without (15) ambiguity concerning this matter, for I conjure thee 
by him (16) who is seated in the flaming vesture on the silver (?) 
head of the (17) Agathodaemon, the almighty four-faced daemon, 
the highest (18) darkling and soul- bringing (?) Phox; do not 
disregard me, but send up (19) speedily in this night an injunction 
(?) of the god,' Say this three times. 

(2o) Then he speaks with you with his mouth opposite your mouth 
in truth concerning everything that you wish. When he has finished, 
and goes away again, (21) you place a tablet of reading (?) the 
hours upon, the bricks and you place the stars upon it and write 
your purpose (?) on a new roll (22) and place it on the tablet, then, 
he (?) makes your stars appear which are favourable for your 
purpose (?). 

(23) [A method] of lucky-shadows (?), that is tested: a hawk's egg 
with myrrh, pound (?), put on your eyes of it, then it makes lucky- 
shadows (?). 

(24) Another again: head and blood of a hoopoe; cook (?) them and 
make them into a dry medicament and paint your eyes with it; then 
you see them, again. 

COL. V. 

(1) And you set up your [planisphere ?] and you stamp on the 
ground with your foot seven times and recite these charms to the 
Foreleg, turning (?) to the North seven times (2) and you return, 
down and go to a dark recess. 

(3) A question-form, tested. You go to a dark clean recess with its 
face open to the south and you purify it with (4) natron-water, and 
you take a new white lamp in which no red earth or gum- water has 
been put and place a clean wick (5) in it and fill it with real oil after 
writing this name and these figures on the wick with ink of myrrh 
beforehand; (6) and you lay it on a new brick before you, its 
underside being spread with sand; and you pronounce these spells 

over the lamp again another seven times. You display frankincense 
in front of (7) the lamp and you look at the lamp; then you see the 
god about the lamp and you lie down on a rush mat without 
speaking (8) to any one on earth. Then he makes answer to you by 
dream. Behold its invocation. 

Formula: (In margin: Behold the spells which you write on the 
wick; Bakhukhsikhukh, and figures) (9) 'Ho! I Murai, Muribi, Babel, 
Baoth, Bamui, the great Agathodaemon, (10) Muratho, the . . . 
form of soul that resteth above in the heaven of heavens, (11) Tatot 
(bis), Bouel (bis), Momhtahi i?)(bis),L3hi (bis), Bolhoel, I (bis), Aa, 
Tat (bis), Bouel (bis), Yohel (bis),the first servant (12) of the great 
god, he who giveth light exceedingly, the companion of the flame, 
he in whose mouth is the fire that is not quenched, the great god 
who is seated (13) in the fire, he who is in the midst of the fire 
which is in the lake of heaven, in whose hand is the greatness and 
the power of god; reveal thyself to me(i4) here to-day in the 
fashion, of thy revelation to Moses which thou didst make upon the 
mountain, before whom thou thyself didst create darkness and 
light, (15) - insertion - 1 pray thee that thou reveal thyself to me 
here to-night and speak with me and give me answer in truth 
without falsehood; for I will glorify thee (16) in Abydos, I will 
glorify thee in heaven before Phre, I will glorify thee before the 
Moon, I will glorify thee (17) before him who is upon the throne, 
who is not destroyed, he (=thou) of the great glory, Peten (bis), 
Pater, Enphe (bis),ii8) O god who is above heaven, in whose hand 
is the beautiful staff, who created deity, deity not having created 
him. Come down (in) to me (19) into the midst of this flame that is 
here before thee, thou of Boel (bis), and let me see the business that 

I ask about (20) to-night truly without falsehood. Let it be seen (?), 
let it be heard (?), O great god Sisihoout, otherwise said Armioouth, 
come (21) in before me and give me answer to that which I shall 
ask about, truly without falsehood. O great god that is on the 
mountain (22) of Atuki (of Gabaon), Khabaho, Takrtat, come in to 
me, let my eyes be opened to-night for any given thing (23) that I 
shall ask about, truly without falsehood . . . the voice (?) of the 
Leasphot, Neblot . . . lilas.' 

Seven times: and you lie down (24) without speaking. 

The ointment which you put on your eyes when you are about to 
inquire of the lamp in any lamp-divination: 

you take some flowers (25) of the Greek bean; you find them in the 
place of the garland-seller, otherwise said of the lupin-seller; you 
take them fresh and put them (26) in a /ofc-vessel of glass and stop 
its mouth very well for twenty days in a secret dark place. After 
twenty days, if you (27) take it out and open it, you find a pair (?) of 
testicles in it with a phallus. You leave it for forty days and when 
you take it out (28) and open it, you find that it has become bloody; 
then you put it on a glass thing and put the glass thing into a 
pottery thing (29) in a place hidden at all times. When you desire 
to make inquiry of the lamp with it at any time if you fill your eyes 
with this (30) blood aforesaid, and if you go in to pronounce a spell 
over the lamp you see a figure of a god standing behind (?) the 
lamp, and he speaks (31) with you concerning the question which 
you wish; or you lie down and he comes to you. If he does not come 
to you, you rise and pronounce his compulsion. (32) You must lie 
down on green reeds, being pure from a woman, your head being 

turned to the south and your face being turned to the north and the 
face of the lamp being turned northwards hkewise. 

(33) insert above - 'I pray thee to reveal thyself to me here to-night 
and speak with me and give me answer truly concerning the given 
matter which I ask thee about.' 


(1) An inquiry of the lamp. 

You go to a clean dark cell without light and you dig a new hole in 
an east wall (2) and you take a white lamp in which no minium or 
gum water has been put, its wick being clean, and you fill it with 
clean genuine Oasis oil, (3) and you recite the spells of praising Ra 
at dawn in his rising and you bring the lamp when lighted opposite 
the sun and recite to it the spells as below four times, (4) and you 
take it into the cell, you being pure, and the boy also, and you 
pronounce the spells to the boy, he not looking at the lamp, his 
eyes being (5) closed, seven times. You put pure frankincense on 
the brazier. You put your finger on the boy's head, his eyes being 
closed. (6) When you have finished you make him open his eyes 
towards the lamp; then he sees the shadow of the god about the 
lamp, and he inquires for you (7) concerning that which you desire. 

You must do it at midday in a place without light, if it be that you 
are inquiring for a spirit damned, a wick of sail-cloth (?) (8) is what 
you put in the lamp and you fill it with clean butter. 

If it is some other business, a clean wick with pure genuine oil (9) 
is that which you put in the lamp; if you will do it to bring a woman 
to a man, ointment of roses is that which you put in the lamp. You 

must lay the lamp (lo) on a new brick and the boy also must sit on 
another brick with his eyes closed. You cry down into his head four 
times, (ii) The spells which you recite (to the lamp) to the wick 
previously before you recite to the boy: formula: 'Art thou the 
unique great wick of the linen of Thoth ?(i2) Art thou the byssus 
robe of Osiris, the divine Drowned, woven by the hand of Isis, spun, 
by the hand of Nephthys? (13) Art thou the original band that was 
made for Osiris Khentamente? Art thou the great bandage with 
which Anubis put forth his hand to the body of Osiris the mighty 
god? (14) I have brought thee to-day - ho! thou wick - to cause the 
boy to look into thee, that thou mayest make reply to every matter 
concerning which I ask here to-day. (15) Is it that you will (?) not 
do it? O wick, I have put thee in the hand of the black cow, I have 
lighted thee in the hand (16) of the female cow. Blood of the 
Drowned one is that which I put to thee for oil; the hand of Anubis 
is that which is laid on thee. The spells (17) of the great Sorcerer 
are those which I recite to thee. Do thou bring me the god in whose 
hand is the command to-day and let him give me answer as to 
everything about which(i8) I inquire here to-day truly without 
falsehood. Ho! Nut, mother of water, ho! Apet, mother of fire, (19) 
come unto me. Nut, mother of water, come Apet, mother of fire, 
come unto me Yaho.' You say it drawling(?) with your voice 
exceedingly. You say again: ' Esex, Poe, Ef-khe-ton,' otherwise said, 
' Khet-on,' seven times. If it is a direct (?) inquiry, these alone are 
the things that you recite (21) to the lamp, and you lie down 
without speaking. But if obduracy take place, you rise, you recite 
(22) his summons, which is his compulsion. 

Formula; 'I am the Ram's face, Youth is my name: I was born 
under the venerable persea (23) in Abydos, I am the soul of the 
great chief who is in Abydos; I am the guardian of the great corpse 
that is in U-pek; (24) I am he whose eyes are as the eyes of Akhom 
when he watcheth Osiris by night; I am Teptuf upon the desert of 
Abydos; (25) I am he that watcheth the great corpse which is in 
Busiris; I am he who watcheth for Light-scarab-noble (?).' 

(In margin) The spells that you write on the lamp, 
Bakhukhsikhukh (and figures) (26) ' whose name is hidden in my 
heart; Bibiou (Soul of souls) is his name.' 

Formula, seven times. If it is a direct (?) inquiry, (27) these things 
alone are what you recite. 

If it is an inquiry by the boy that you are about, you recite these 
aforesaid to the lamp (28) before calling down into the head of the 
boy, you turn round (?), you recite this other invocation to the 
lamp also. 

Formula.: 'O Osiris, O lamp (29) that giveth vision of the things (of 
days) above, that giveth vision of the things below and vice versa, O 
lamp (bis), Amen is moored in thee; O lamp (bis) I (30) invoke 
thee, thou goest up to the shore of the great sea, the sea of Syria, 
the sea of Osiris. Do I speak (31) to thee ? Dost thou come that I 
may send thee ? Ho, lamp, witness (?) to thyself, since thou hast 
found Osiris upon his boat of papyrus and tehen, (32) Isis being at 
his head, Nephthys at his feet, and the male and female gods about 
him. Speak, Isis, let it be told (33) to Osiris concerning the things 
which I ask about, to cause the god to come in whose hand is the 

command, and give me answer to everything about which I shall 
inquire (34) here to-day. 

When Isis said "Let a god be summoned to me that I may send him, 
he being discreet (?) as to the business on which he will go and he 
accomplish it," (35) they went and they brought to her; thou art the 
lamp that was brought to her. The fury of Sekhmet thy mother and 
of Heke thy father is (36) cast at thee, thou shalt not be lighted for 
Osiris and Isis, thou shalt not be lighted for Anubis until thou hast 
given me an answer to everything which I ask (37) about here to- 
day truly without telling me falsehood. If thou wilt not do it, I will 
not give thee oil. 


(1) 'I will not give thee oil, I will not give thee fat. O lamp; verily I 
will give thee the body of the female cow and put blood (2) of the 
male bull into (?) thee and put thy band to the testicles (?) of the 
enemy of Horus. Open to me, O ye of the underworld, the box of 
myrrh that is in my hand; (3) receive me before you, O ye souls of 
Aker belonging to Bi-wekem, the box of frankincense that hath 
four corners. O dog, which is (4) called Anubis by name, who 
resteth on the box of myrrh, whose feet are set on the box of 
frankincense, let there come to me (5) the ointment for the son of 
the lamp that he (?) may give me answer as to everything about 
which I ask here to-day, truly without falsehood therein, (6) lo, 
Tabao, Soukhamamon, Akhakhanbou, Sanauani, Ethie, Komto, (7) 
Kethos, Basaethori, Thmila, Akhkhou, give me answer as to 
everj^hing about which I ask here to-day,' Seven times, (8) The 
spells of the boy: Boel, Boel (bis), li (bis), Aa (bis), Tattat (bis), he 

that giveth light exceedingly, the companion of the flame, (9) he in 
whose mouth is the fire that is not quenched, the great god that 
sitteth in the fire, he that is in the midst of the fire, he that is in the 
lake of heaven, (10) in whose hand is the greatness and might of 
God, reveal thyself to this boy who hath my vessel to-day, and let 
him give me answer truly (11) without falsehood. I will glorify thee 
in Abydos, I will glorify thee in heaven before Phre. I will glorify 
thee (12) before the moon, I will glorify thee on earth, I will glorify 
thee before him who is upon the throne, who is not destroyed, he 
of the great glory, (13) Peteri, Peteri, Pater, Enphe, Enphe, the god 
who is above heaven, in whose hand is the beautiful staff, (14) who 
created deity, deity not having created him, come into the midst of 
this fire that is here before thee, he of Boel, Aniel (15) realise me to 
see the business about which I am inquiring here to-day, let it be 
seen, let it be heard (16) and do thou give strength to the eyes of 
the boy who has my vessel, to cause him to see it, and to his tears 
to cause him to hear it, O great god Siainont, (17) before me and 
cause my eyes to be opened to everything forwhich I pray here to- 
day, (18) Akhremto, come in into the midst of this flame, O great 
god that is upon the hill of (Atugi) Gabaon, Khabaho, Takrtat.' You 
recite this (19) until the light appear. 

When the light appears, you turn round (?), you recite this spell- 
copy a second time again. Behold the spell-copy also (?) of the 
summons (20) that you recite: 'Ho! speak to me (bis) Thes, Tenor, 
the father of eternity without end, the god who is over the whole 
earth, Salkmo, (21) Balkmo, Brak, Nephro, Bampre, Brias, Sarinter, 
Melikhriphs, (22) Largnanes, Herephes, Mephrobrias, Pherka, 
Phexe, Diouphia, (23) Marmareke, Laore-Krephie, may I see the 

answer to the inquiry on account of which I am here, may answer 
be made to me (24) to everything about which I ask here to-day, 
truly without falsehood. Ho! Adael, Aphthe, Khokhomole, (25) 
Hesenmigadon. Orthobaubo, Noere, Sere, Sere, San-kathara, (26) 
Ereskhigal, Saggiste, Dodekakiste, Akrourobore, Kodere.' (27) You 
make him open his eyes and look at the lamp, and ask him as to 
that which you wish. If obstinacy appear, he not having seen the 
god, you turn round(?), (28) you pronounce his compulsion. 

Formula: 'Semea-kanteu, Kenteu, Konteu, Kerideu, Darenko, 
Lekaux, (29) come to me, Kanab, Ari-katei, Bari-katci, disk, moon 
of the gods, disk, hear my voice, let answer be given me (30) as to 
everything about which I ask here to-day. O perfume of Zalabaho, 
Nasira, Hake, arise (?) O Lion-ram, (31) let me see the light to-day, 
and the gods; and let them give me answer as to everything about 
which I ask here to-day truly. Na, Na, Na, Na, is thy name, (32) Na, 
Na, is thy true name.' 

You utter a whisper (?) with your voice loudly; you recite saying, ' 
Come to me laho, laeu, (33) laho, Auho, laho, Hai, Ko, Hoou, Ko, 
Nashbot, Arpi-Hap(?), Abla, Balbok, (34) Honbek (Hawk-face), Ni, 
Abit, Thatlat, Maribal.' 


(1) If [the god(?)] delay so as not to come in, you cry: (2) 'Maribal, 
Kmla, Kikh, Father of the fathers of the gods, go round (?), one Eye 
weeps, the other laughs, loh (bis, bis). Ha, Ha, He, (3) St, St, St, St, 
Ihe, laho, seek (?); let there come to me the god in whose hand is 
the command to-day, and let him give me reply to everything (4) 
about which I ask here to-day.' You say, 'Pef-nuti(?)' with your 

mouth each time, and you cry, 'I cast fury at thee of him who 
cutteth thee, of him who devoureth thee. (5) Let the darkness 
separate from the hght before me. Ho! god, Hu-bos, Ri.khetem, Si 
(bis), Aho (?), Ah, Mai (?) ("I do not"?), (6) Kha, Ait, Ri-shfe, Bibiu, 
laho, Ariaha (bis), Arainas ("do for her"), Euesetho ("they will turn 
the face"), Bekes, Gs, Gs, Gs, Gs, (7) lanian, Eren, Eibs, Ks, Ks, Ks, 
Ks, let the god come to me in whose hand is the command and give 
me answer as to everything about which I (8) inquire here to-day. 
Come in. Piatoou, Khitore; ho! Shop, Shope, Shop, Abraham, the 
apple (?) of the Eye of the uzat, (9) Kmr, Kmr, Kmr, Kmr, Kmro, so 
as to create, Kom, Kom-wer-wot, Sheknush (?) is thy real name, let 
answer be told to me (10) as to everything about which I ask here 
to-day. Come to me Bakaxikhekh, tell me answer to everything 
which I ask about here to-day truly (11) without telling me 
falsehood.' Formula. Seven times. (12) 'A direct (?) inquiry by (?) 
the voice of Pasash(?) the priest of Kes; he (the informant) tells it, 
saying it is tested, nine times : (13) 'I am Ramshau, Shau, Ramshau 
son of Tapshau, of his mother Tapshau, if it be that (14) any given 
thing shall happen, do not come to me with thy face of Pekhe; thou 
shalt come to me in thy form of a priest, (15) in thy figure of a 
servant of the temple. (But) if it shall not come to pass, thou (shalt) 
come to me in thy form of a Kalashire, (16) for I am Ramshau, 
Shau, Ramshau, the son of Tapshau, of his mother Tapshau.' [Say 
it] opposite (17) the Shoulder constellation on the third day of the 
month, there being a clove of three-lobed white garlic and there 
being three needles (18) of iron piercing it, and recite this to it 
seven times; and put it at thy head Then he attends to you and 
speaks with you. 


(1) The vessel-inquiry of Chons. 

'[Homage ?] to thee, Chons-in-Thebes-Nefer-hotep, the noble child 
that came forth from the lotus, Horus, lord of time (?), one he is . . . 

(2) Ho! silver, lord of silver, Shentei, lord of Shentei, lord of the 
disk, the great god, the vigorous bull, the Son of the Ethiopian, 
come to me, noble child, the great god that is in (3) the disk, who 
pleaseth men (?), Pomo, who is called the mighty bull (bis), the 
great god that is in the uzat, that came forth from the four 
[boundaries?] (4) of eternity, the punisher of the flesh (?), whose 
name is not known, nor his nature, nor his likeness (?). I know thy 
name, I know thy nature, I [know] (5) thy likeness. Great is thy 
name. Heir is thyxcellent is thy name. Hidden is thy name. Mighty 
one of the gods is thy name, "He whose name is hidden from all the 
gods" is thy name, Om, (6) Mighty Am is thy name, "All the gods" 
is thy name, Lotus-lion-ram, is thy name, "Loou comes, lord of the 
lands " (bis) is thy name, Amakhr of heaven is thy name, "Lotus- 
flower of stars (?) (7) Cometh," Ei-io Ne-ei-o is thy name. Thy form 
is a scarab with the face of a ram; its tail a hawk's, it wearing (?) 
two panther-skins (?). Thy [serpent is a serpent ?] (8) of eternity, 
thine orbit (?) a lunar month, thy tree a vine-tree and persea(?), 
thy herb the herb of Amen, thy fowl of heaven a heron, thy fish of 
[the deep(?)] (9) a black lebes. They are established on earth. Yb is 
thy name in thy body in (?) the sea, thy figure of stone in which 
thou camest forth is a . . .; (10) heaven is thy shrine, the Earth thy 
fore-court; it was my will (?) to seize thee here to-day, for I am one 
shining, enduring: my . . . (11) faileth (?) if I have not done it 
through (?) the delay, I not having discovered thy name, O great 

god whose name is great, the lord of the threshing-floor (?) of 
heaven. (But) I have done it, [enduring ?] hunger (12) for bread, 
and thirst for water; and do thou rescue(?) me and make me 
prosper and give me praise, love, and reverence before every man. 
For I am(?) the [mighty] bull, (13) the great god that is in the uzat, 
that came forth from the four regions (?) of space (?). I am Hune 
(youth), the great name that is in heaven, whom they call . . . (14) 
Amphoou (bis), "True" (bis), "He is praised to(?) Abydos." "Ra," 
"Horus the boy" is my name, "Chief of the gods" is my correct 
name, preserve me, make me to prosper, make my vessel to 
become [successful?]. (15) Open to me Arkhah before every god 
and every man that hath come forth from the stone of Ptah. For I 
am the serpent that came forth from Nun, I am a(i6) proud (?) 
Ethiopian, a rearing serpent of real gold, there being honey in my 
(?) lips; that which I shall say cometh. to pass at once. Ho! . . . (17) 
mighty one, for I am Anubis, the baby creature (?); I am Isis and I 
will bind him, I am Osiris and I will bind him, I am Anubis [and I 
will bind] him. Thou wilt save me from every . . . (18) and every 
place of confusion(?). Lasmatnout, Lesmatot, protect me, heal me, 
give me love, praise and reverence in my vessel (19), my bandage (?) 
here to-day. Come to me, Isis, mistress of magic, the great 
sorceress of all the gods. Horus is before me, Isis behind me, 
Nephthys as my diadem, (20) a snake of the son(s) of Atum is that 
which ... a uraeus-diadem at my head; for he that shall strike (?) 
me (?) shall strike (?) King Mont here to-day . . . (21) Mihos, 
mighty one shall send out a lion of the sons of Mihos under 
compulsion to fetch them to me (bis) the souls of god, the souls (22) 
of man, the souls of the Underworld, the souls of the horizon, the 
spirits, the dead, so that they tell me the truth to-day concerning 

that after which I am inquiring: for I am (23) Horus son of Isis who 
goeth on board at Arkhah to put wrappings on the amulets, to put 
hnen on the Drowned one, (24) the fair Drowned one of the 
drowned (?). They shall rise, they shall flourish at the mouths of 
my vessel, my bandage (?), my word-seeking (?). 

(25) Arouse them for me (bis), the spirits, the dead; rouse their 
souls and forms at (?) the mouths of my vessel; rouse them for me 

(26) with the dead; rouse [them} for me (bis); rouse their souls and 
their forms. The fury of Pessiwont ("Her (whose) son is Wont"), the 
daughter of Ar . . . (27) rouse them for me (bis) the Unti from their 
places of punishment, let them talk with their mouths, let them 
speak with their lips, let them say that which I have said, [about 
that which] (28) I am asking them here to-day; let them speak 
before (?) me, let truth happen to me; do not substitute a face for a 
face, a name for a true (bis) name [without] (20) falsehood in it. 
[Ho?] scarab of true lapislazuli that sitteth at the pool of Pharaoh 
Osiris Unnefer? (30) fill thy mouth with the water of [the pool ?], 
pour it on my head together with him who is at my hand; make me 
prosper, make him prosper, and. conversely, until my words 
[happen ?], let (31) that which I say come to pass; for if that which 

I have said do not come to pass, I will cause fire to go round about 
this Seoue until that which I have said do come to pass; for [they 
came] (32) to the earth, they listened to me , , . they said to me, 
"Who art thou?" (bis), I am Atum in. the sun-boat of Phre; I am 
Ariotatu, the Shto of. . . (33) I looked out before. . . to observe 
Osiris the Ethiopian, he came into my head, there being two sons 
of Anubis in front of him, [two] sons of Ophois behind him, (34) 
two sons of Rere mooring him. They said to me "Who art thou?" 

(bis), I am one of those two hawks that watch over Isis and Osiris, 
the diadem, the . . . (35) with its glory (?) , , ,, bring them to me 
(bis), the souls of god, the souls of man, the souls of the 
Underworld, the souls of the horizon, 

COL. X. 

(1) the spirits, the dead; let them tell me the truth to-day in that 
about which I shall ask: for I am Artemi . .. se(?)-mau, rising in the 

(2) Come in to me, Anubis with thy fair face, I have come to pray to 
thee. Woe(?) (bis), fire (bis), [South, North,] West, East, (3) every 
breeze of Amenti, let them come into being, proved (bis), 
established, correct, enchanted, like the fury [of the great one] of 
reverence; for I am (4) lae, lao, laea, lao, Sabaoth, Atone ; for I cast 
fury at thee, Thial, Klatai, (5) Arkhe, loa, Phalekmi, lao, Makhahai, 
lee, Kho..n, Khokhrekhc, Aaioth, (6) Sarbiakou, Ikra, Phibiek, 
Momou, Mounaikh, Sritho, Sothon, Naon, Kharmai, (7) the fury of 
all these gods, whose names I have uttered here to-day, rouse them 
for me (bis), the drowned (?), the dead; let your (plur.) soul and 
your (plur.) form live for me (8) at the mouths of my lamp, my 
bandage (?), my word-seeking (?). Let him make me answer to 
every word [about] which I am asking here to-day in truth (bis) 
without (9) falsehood therein. Ii3isten(bis), quickly (bis).' 

Its spirit-gathering: 

You go to a dark chamber with its [face] open to the South or East 
(10) in a clean place: you sprinkle it with clean sand brought from 
the great river; you take a clean bronze cup or (11) a new vessel of 
pottery and put a lok-measure of water that has settled (?) or of 

pure water into the [cup] and a /ofc-measure of real oil (12) pure, or 
oil alone without putting water into it, and put a stone of qs-ankh 
in the vessel containing oil, and put a 'heart- (13) of-the-good- 
house' (plant ?) in the bottom of the vessel, and put three bricks 
round about the vessel, of new bricks, (14) and place seven clean 
loaves on the bricks that are round the vessel and bring a pure 
child that has been tested (15) in his ears before, that is, is 
profitable in proceeding with the vessel. You make him sit on a new 
[brick] and you also sit (16) on another brick, you being at (?) his 
face, otherwise said, his back, and you put your hand before [his] 
eyes, [his eyes being] closed and call down (17) into the middle of 
his head seven times. When you have finished, you take your hand 
from before his eyes, you [make him bend over] the vessel; you put 
your hand. (18) to his ears, you take hold of them with your hand 
also, you ask the child saying, 'Do you [? see...]?' If he says, 'I see a 

(19) darkness,' you say to him ' Speak, saying, "I see thy beautiful 
face, and do thou [hear my salutation ?], O great god Anubis!" ' 

(20) If you wish to do it by vessel alone, you fill your eyes with this 
ointment, you sit (?) [over the vessel ?] as aforesaid, your eyes 
being (21) closed; you utter the above invocation seven times, you 
open your eyes, you ask him concerning everything [that you wish 
(?)]. . . you do it from the (22) fourth day of the lunar month until 
the fifteenth day, which is the half-month when the moon fills the 

[A] vessel- [inquiry] alone in order to see (23) the bark of Phre. 
Formula, : ' Open to me heaven, O mother of die gods! Let [me see 
the ba]rk of Phre descending and ascending (24) in it; for I am Geb, 

heir of the gods; prayer is what I make before Phre my father [on 
account of] the things which have proceeded from me. (25) O 
Heknet, great one, lady of the shrine, the Rishtret (?), Open to me, 
mistress of the spirits, [open] to me, primal heaven, let (26) me 
worship the Angels! [for] I am Geb, heir of the gods. Hail! ye seven 
Kinga, hoi! ye [seven Monts}, bull that engendereth, lord of 
strength (27) that lighteth the earth, soul of the abyss; ho! lion as 
lion of(?) the abyss, bull of the night, hail! thou that rulest the 
people of the East, (28) Noun, great one, lofty one, hail! soul of a 
ram, soul of the people of the West, hail! [soul of souls, bull] of the 
night, bull (?) of bulls, (29) son of Nut, open to me, I am the 
Opener of earth, that came forth from Geb, hail! [I am I, I.] I, E, E, 
E, [He, He, He,] (30) Ho, Ho, Ho; I am Anepo, Miri-po-re, Maat(?) 
lb, Thi[bio. Ar]oui, Ouoou, [laho.'] 

(31) Formula: blood of a smun-goose. blood of a hoopoe, blood of a 
n[ightjar], ankh-amu plant, [senepe plant], (32) ' Great-of-Amen' 
plant, qes-ankh stone, genuine lapis-lazuli, myrrh, 'footprint-of- 
Isis' plant, pound, make into a ball, [you paint] your [eyes] with it; 
put(?) a goat's-[tear] (33) in (?) a' pleasure-wood ' of ani or ebony 
wood, [you bind it (?)] around (?) you [with a] (34) strip of male- 
palm fibre in [an] elevated place opposite the sun after putting [the 
ointment as above on] your eyes . .. (35) according to what is 
prescribed for it. 


(1) A spell of giving favour: 

'Come to me, O thy beautiful name. O Thoth, hasten (bis); 

come to me. (2) Let me see thy beautiful face here today [I 

stand (?)] being in the form of an ape; and do thou greet (?) me (3) 
with praise and adoration (?) with thy tongue of. . . [Come unto me] 
that thou mayest hearken to my voice to-day, and mayest save me 
from all things evil (4) and all slander (?). Ho! thou whose form is- 

of his great and mysterious form, from whose begetting came 

forth a. god, (5) who resteth deep (?) in Thebes; I am of the 

great Lady, under whom cometh forth the Nile, (6) I am the face of 

reverence great soul (?) in his protection; I am the noble child 

(7) who is in the House of Re: I am the noble dwarf who is in the 

cavern the ibis as a true protection, who resteth in On; (8) I 

am the master of the great foe, lord of the obstructor(?) of semen, 

mighty my name (?) I am a ram, son of a ram, Sarpot Mui-Sro 

(and vice versa) (9) is my name. Light-scarab- noble (?) is my true 
name (bis); grant me praise and love [and reverence from N. son of] 
N. to-day, and let him give me all good things, (10) and let him give 
me nourishment and fat things, and let him do for me everything 
which I [wish for; and let him not] injure me so as to do me harm, 
nor let him say to me a thing (11) which (I) hate, to-day, to-night, 
this month, this year, [this] hour (?). . . 

[But as for my enemies ?] the sun shall impede their hearts and 
blind (12) their eyes, and cause the darkness to be in their faces; for 
I am Birai. .. rai, depart ye(?), Rai; I am the son of Sochmet,(i3) I 

am Bikt, bull of Lat, I am Gat. son of Gat, whose the 

Underworld, who rests deep(?) in the Great Residence in On, (14) I 
am son of Heknet, lady of the protecting bandage (?), who binds 
with thongs (?)....[! am the . ...] phallus (?) which the great and 
mighty Powers guard, (15) which rests in Bubastis; I am the divine 
shrew-mouse which [resteth with] in Skh}^!! ; lord of Ay, sole(?) 

lord. . . (16) is my name Light-scarab-noble (?) is my true name 

Ho! all ye these gods, [whose names I have spoken] here to-day, 
come to me, that ye may hearken to that which I have said to-day 
(17) and rescue [me] from all weakness(?), every disgrace, 
everything, every evil (?)to-day;grant mepraise, love [andreverence 
before] such an one, the King and his host, (18) the desert and its 
animals; let him do everything which I shall say to him together 
with [every man who shall see] me or to whom I shall speak or who 
shall speak (19) to me, among every man, every woman, every child, 
every old man, every person [or animal or thing (?) in the]whole 
land, [which] shall see me in these moments to-day, (2o)and let 
them cause my praise to be in their hearts of everything which I 
shall [do] daily, together with those who shall come to me, to (?) 
overthrow every enemy (?), (21) hasten (bis) quickly (bis), before I 
say them or repeat them.' 

Over an ape of wax. An oxyrhynchus(?) fish - you put it (22) in 
prime lily otherwise tesheps-oi\ or moringa(?) oil which [has 
been . .. and you put liquid ?] styrax to it, with prime frankincense 
together with seeds of (23) 'great-of-love' plant in a metal (?) vase; 

you bring a wreath of flowers of. and you anoint it with this 

oil as above, and recite (24) these spells over it seven times before 
the sun in the morning, before speaking to any man on earth; you 
extract it, you anoint your face with it, (25) you place the wreath, in 
your hand, and proceed to any place [and be] amongst any people; 
then it brings you (26) great praise among them exceedingly. This 
scribe's feat is that of King [Dariu]s (?) ; there is no better than it. 


(i) [A method for making] a woman love a man. 

Opobalsamum, one stater (?) ; malabathrum, one stater (?). 
{2)kusht, one stater (?), scented . . .., one stater (?); nerue, one 
stater (?); genuine oil, two lok; you pound these [medicaments]. (3) 
You put them into a clean [vessel], you add the oil on the top of 
them one day before the lunar period (?); when the lunar period (?) 
(4) comes, you take a black Kesh . . . -fish measuring nine fingers - 
another says seven - in length, its eyes being variegated (?) of the 
colour of(?) the .(5) [which you (?)] find in a water (?)... you put 
it into this oil above-mentioned for two days; you recite this 
formula to it (the oil) at dawn ... (6) before going [out of your] 
house, and before speaking to any man on earth. 

When two days have passed [you] (7) rise early in the morning 
[and go] to a garden; you take a vine-shoot before it has ripened 
grapes, (8) you take it with your left hand,you put it into your right 
hand - when it has grown seven digits (in length)- you carry it [into 
your] (9) house, and you take the [fish] out of the oil, you tie it by 
its tail with a strip (?) of flax,you hang it up to . ..(10) of(?) the vine- 
wood. [You place] the thing containing oil under it until it (the fish) 
pours out hydrops that which is in it downwards, (11) the vessel 
which is under [it] being on a new brick for another three days; 
when the three days have passed, you [take it] (12) down,you 
embalm [it] with myrrh, natron, and fine linen ; you put it in a 
hidden place or in [your chamber] (13) You pass two more days; 
you recite to the oil again for seven days; you keep it; when you 

[wish] (14) to make it do its work, you anoint your phallus and 
your face; you lie with the woman for whom you do it. 

(15) The spells which you recite to the oil. 

'I am ShUjKlabano, I am Re, I am Komre, I am son of Re, I am 

(16) Sisht (?), son of Shu; a reed (?) of the water of On, this gryphon 
which is in Abydos. Thou (fem.) art Tepe-were (first, great) great of 
sorcery, (17) the living uraeus, thou art the sun-boat, the lake of 
Ua-peke; grant to me praise, love, and lordship before (18) every 
womb, every woman. Love(?) is my true name'. 

[Another (?)] invocation of it again; 'I am Shu, Klakinok, I am larn, 
(19) I am Gamren, I am Se . . .. Paer(?)ipaf lupen, Dynhs,Gamrou, 
water of On, I am (20) Shu, Shabu, Sha. . . . , Shabaho, Lahy-lahs, 
Lahei, the great god who is in the East (31) Labrathaa, I am that 
gryphon which is in Abydos.' 

[Another] form of them (?) again (?) to give favour to a man before 
a woman and vice versa, before. ...' Thou art Thoueris, the great of 
sorcery, [cat(?)] of Ethiopia, daughter of Re, lady of the uraeus; 
thou art Sochmet, the great, lady of Ast, (23) who hast seized every 
impious person .... [eyeball (?)] of the sun in the uzat, born of the 

moon at the midmonth at night, thou art Kam (?) (24)mighty, 

abyss, thou art Kam (?).... great one (fem.) who art in the Houseof 
the obelisk in On; thou art the golden mirror, [thou art?] (25) the 

sektet-bo3it,Xhe sun-boat of Re Lanza, the youth, the son of the 

Greek woman, the Amazon (?) in the . . .(36) of dum-palm fruit (?), 
these . . . , of Bywekem; the favour and love which the sun, thy 
father, hath given to thee, send [them] (27) to me down into this oil. 

before the heart, and eyes of (?) every woman before whom I come 

[Invocation] to a Kesh . . -fish (28) of nine digits and black; [you 
put it] in an ointment of roses; you drown it therein; you take it 
[out], (29) you hang it up by [its] head[. .. days (?)]; when you have 
finished you put it on a glass vessel; you [add] a little water of 
sisymbrium (30) with a little amulet (?)-of-Isis. . .. and pounded; 
you recite this to it seven times for seven days opposite the rising of 
the sun. You anoint your head with [it] (31) in the hour when you 
lie with [any (?)]woman. [You] embalm the fish with myrrh and 
natron; you bury it in your chamber or in a hidden place. 


(1) The mode of separating a man from a woman and a woman 
from her husband,(2) 'Woe! (bis), flame! (bis); Geb assumed his 
form of a bull, coivit [cum filia ?] matris suae Tefnet, again .... (3) 
because (?) the heart of his father cursed (?) his face; the fury of 
him whose soul is as flame, while his body is as a pillar (?), so 

that(?) he (4) fill the earth with flame and the mountains 

shoot with tongues (?) : - the fury of every god and every goddess 

Ankh-uer, Lalat(?), (5)Bareshak, Belkesh, he cast upon (?) 

N. the son of N. [and (?)] N. the daughter of N., (6) send the fire 
towards his heart and the flame in his place of sleeping, the ... of 
fire of hatred never [ceasing to enter] (7) into his heart at any time, 
until he cast N. daughter of N. out of his abode, she having (?) (8) 
hatred to his heart, she having quarrel to his face; grant for him the 
nagging (?) and squabbling (?), the fighting and quarrelling 
between them (9) at all times, until they are separated from each 

other, without agreeing again for ever.' Gum, . . . , (lo) myrrh; you 
add wine to them; you make them into a figure of Geb, there being 
a u;as-sceptre in his hand. 

(ii)[The uses (?)] of the shrew-mouse (?) to which it is put (goes). 

You take a shrew-mouse (?), you drown it in some water; you make 
the man drink (12) of it; then he is bhnded in his two eyes. 

Grind its body (?) with any piece of food, you make the man eat it, 
then he makes a (13). . . and he swells up and he dies. 

If you do it to bring a woman, you take a shrew-mouse (?), you 
place it on a Syrian (14) pot, you put it on the backbone (?) of a 
donkey, you put its tail in a Syrian pot or in a glass again; you let it 
loose (?) alive within (15) the door of a bath of the woman, you gild 
(?) it (sic) and embalm its tail, you add pounded myrrh to it, you 
put it in a gold ring (?), (16) you put it on your finger after reciting 
these charms to it, and walk with it to any place, and any woman 
whom you shall take hold of, she [givefh herself (?)] unto you. (17) 
You do it when the moon is full. 

If you do it to make a woman mad after a man, you take its body, 
dried, you pound [it, you] take (18) a little of it with a little blood of 
your second finger, (that) of the heart (?), of your left hand; you 
mix it with it, you put it(i9) in a cup of wine; you give it to the 
woman and she drinks it; then she has a passion for you. 

You put its gall into a (measure of) wine (20) and the man drinks it; 
then he dies at once; or (you) put it into any piece [of food]. 

You put its heart (?) into a seal-ring(?) (21) of gold; you put it on 
your hand, and go anywhere; then it brings you [favour, love, and] 

You drown a hawk in (22) a (measure of) wine; you make the man 
drink it, then he dies. 

You put the gall of an Alexandrian [weasel] into any food, (23) then 
he dies. 

You put a two-tailed lizard into the oil and [cook] it, and anoint the 
man with it; then [he dies(?)]. 

(24) You wish to produce a skin-disease on a man and that it shall 
not be healed, a /iantous-lizard[and (?)] a /zq/ZeeZe-lizard, you cook 
them with [oil (?)],(25) you wash the man with them. 

If you wish to makeit troublesome (?), you put then it is 

troublesome (?). 

You put beer(?) (26) to the eye of a man, then he is blinded. 

(27) The charms which you recite to the ring at the time of taking 

hold of the woman 'Yaho, Abrasax, (28) may N. daughter of N. 

love me, may she burn for me by the way (?).' You Then she 

conveys herself (?) after you; you write it (29) again on the strip 
with which you wrap up the [shrew-mouse (?)]. 


(1) That which another man said to me; 'Open my eyes,' unto four 
times. (2) [A vessel-divination :] ' Open my eyes; open thy eyes,' 

(and) vice versa, unto three times. ' Open, Tat; Open, Nap,' three 
times; (3) ' open [unto me?]' three [times ?], 'for I am Artamo, born 
of Hame-o (?), the great basihsk of the East, rising in glory 
together with thy father (4)at dawn; hail (bis), Heh, open to me 
Hah,' you say it with a drawling(?)voice 'Artamo, open to me Hah; 
if thou dost (5) not open to me Hah, I will make thee open to me 
Hah. O Ibis (bis), sprinkle(?), that I may (?) see the great god. 
Anubis, the power, (6) that is about (?) my head, the great 
protector (?) of the uzat, the power, Anubis, the good ox-herd, at 
every opening(?) (of the eye ?) which I have (?) made, (7) reveal 
thyself to me; for I am Nasthom, Naszot, Nashoteb, Borilammai 
(bis), (8) Mastinx, Anubis, Megiste, Arian, thou who art great, 
Arian, Pi-anuzy (?), Arian, (9)he who is without. Hail, Phrix, Ix, 
Anaxibrox, Ambrox, Eborx, Xon, (10) Nbrokhria, the great child, 
Anubis; for I am that soldier. O ye of the Atef- crown, ye of 
Pephnun, Masphoneke; (11) hail! let all that I have said come to 
pass here to-day; say, hail! thou art Tham, Thamthom, 
Thamathom, (12) Tharnathomtham, Thamathouthi, Amon (bis), 
thy correct name, whom they call Thom, (13) Anakthom; thou art 
Itth; Thouthi is thy name, Sithom, Anithom Op-sao(?),Shatensro 
(14) black; open to me the mouths of my vessel here to-day; come 
to me to the mouths of my vessel, my bandage (?), let (15) my cup 
make the reflection (?) of heaven; may the hounds of the kulot give 
me that which is just in the abyss; may they tell me (16) that about 
which I inquire here to-day truly (bis), there being no falsehood in 
them , Makhopneuma.' 

(17) Formula : you take a bowl of bronze, you engrave a figure of 
Anubis in it; you fill it with water left to settle (?) and (18) 

guarded(?) lest(?) the sun should reach it; you finish its (sur-)face 
(of the water) with fine oil. You place it on [three ?] new bricks, 
their lower sides being sprinkled (19) with sand; you put four other 
bricks under the child; you make the child lie down upon (?) his 
stomach; (20) you cause him (?) to place his chin on the brick of 
the vessel; you make him look into the oil, he having a cloth spread 
over his head, (21) there being a lighted lamp on his right, and a 
censer with fire on his left; you put a leaf of (22) Anubis-plant on 
the lamp, you put this incense on (the fire); you recite these spells, 
which are above, to the vessel seven times. 

The incense which you put (23) on (the fire): frankincense (?), wax 
(?), styrax, turpentine (?), date- stone (?); grind them with wine; 
you make them into a (24) ball and put them on (the fire). 

When you have finished, you make the child open his eyes, you ask 
him, saying, 'Is the god coming in?' If he says (25) 'The god has 
come in,' you recite before him: 

formula; 'Thy bull(?) Mao, ho! Anubis, this soldier(?), this Kam, 

(26) this Kem . . . Pisreithi (bis), Sreithi (bis), Abrithi is thy name, 
by thy correct name.' 

(27) You ask him concerning that which you [desire]; when you 
have finished your inquiry which you are asking about, you call to 
him seven times; you dismiss the god to his home. 

His dismissal formula: (38) ' Farewell (bis) Anubis, the good ox- 
herd, Anubis (bis), the son of a (?) jackal (and ?) a dog . . . another 
volume saith: the child of . . . (29) Isis (?) (and 7) a dog, Nabrishoth, 
the Cherub (?) of Amenti, king of those of.. ...'Say seven times. 

You take (30) the lamp from (?) the child, you take the vessel 
containing water, you take the cloth off him. You do it also (31) by 
vessel-inquiry alone, excellent (bis),tned (?), tested nine times. The 
Anubis-plant. It grows in very numerous places;(32) its leaf is like 
the leaf of Syrian [plant (?)]; it turns (?) white; its flower is like the 
flower of conyza.(33) . . . you . . .eye . . . before you .. . the vessel. 


(1) A potion. You take a little shaving of the head of a man who has 
died a violent death, (2) together with seven grains of barley that 
has been buried in a grave of a dead (?) man; you pound them with 
ten oipe, (3) otherwise nine,(of) apple-seeds (?); you add blood of a 
worm (?) of a black dog to them,with a little (4) blood of your 
second finger, (that) of the heart (?), of your left hand, and with 
your semen (?), and you (5) pound them together and put them 
into a cup of wine and add three uteh to it of (6)the first-fruits of 
the vintage, before you have tasted it and before they have poured 
out from it; and you pronounce this invocation to it seven times (7) 
and you make the woman drink it; and you tie the skin of the 
parasite aforesaid with a band of byssus (8) and tie it to your left 

Its invocation formula: 'I am he of Abydos in truth, (9)by 
formation (?)(and ?) birth in her (?) name of Isis the bringer (?) of 
fire, she of the mercy-seat of the Agathodaemon. (io)I am this 
figure of the sun, Sitamesro is my name. I am this figure of a 
Captain of the host, very valiant, this (ii)Sword (?), this 
Overthrower(?), the Great Flame is my name. I am this figure of 

Horus, this Fortress(?), this Sword(?), this (i2)Overthrower (?) is 
my name. I am this figure of One Drowned, that testifieth by 
writing, that resteth on die other side(?) here under (i3)the great 
offering-table (?) of Abydos; as to which, the blood of Osiris bore 
witness to her (?) name of Isis when it (the blood) was poured into 
(14) this cup, this wine. Give it, blood of Osiris (that?) he(?) gave to 
Isis to make her feel love in her heart for him (15) night and day at 
any time, there not being time of deficiency. Give it, the blood of N. 
born of N. to give it (16) to N. born of N. in this cup, this bowl of 
wine to-day, to cause her to feel a love for him in her heart, (i7)the 
love that Isis felt for Osiris, when she was seeking after him 
everywhere, let N. the daughter of N. feel it, (18) she seeking after 
N. the son of N. everywhere; the longing that Isis felt for Horus of 
Edfu,(i9) let N. born of N. feel it, she loving him,mad after 
him,inflamed by him, seeking him (2o)everywhere, there being a 
flame of fire in her heart in her moment of not seeing him.' 

(21) Another method of doing it again. The paring (?) of your nail's 
point (?)from an apple-fruit(?), and blood (22)of your finger 
aforesaid again; you pound the apple and put blood on it,and put it 
in the cup of wine (23) and invoke it seven times, and make the 
woman drink it at the moment named. 

(24) [A spell] of going to meet a sovereign (?) when he fights with 
you and will not parley (?) with you. (25) 'Do not pursue me, thou! 
I am Papipetou Metoubanes. I am carrying (26) the mummy of 
Osiris and I am proceeding to take it to Abydos, (27) to take [it] to 
Tastai (?) and to deposit it in Alkhai; if N. deal blows at me, (28) I 
will cast it at him. 'Its invocation in Egyptian also is this as below; 

(29) 'Do not pursue me, N., I am Papipetu Metubanes. I am 
carrying the mummy of Osiris, (30) I am proceeding to take it to 
Abydos, to cause it to rest in Alkhah. If N. fight with me to-day, (31) 
I will cast it away.' Say seven times. 


(1, 2)The words of the lamp: 'Both, Theou, le. One, 0-oe, la, Oua - 
otherwise,Theou, le, Oe, Oon, la, Oua- Phthakh, Eloe - otherwise, 
Elon, excellent^^bis^ - (3)Iath, Eon, Puriphae, leou, la, lo, la, loue, 
come down (4) to the light of this lamp and appear to this boy and 
inquire for me about that which I ask (5) hereto-day, lao, laolo, 
Therentho, Psikhimeakelo,(6) Blakhanspla, lae, Ouebai, 
Barbaraithou, leou, Arponknouph, (7) Brintatenophri, Hea, Karrhe, 
Balmenthre, Menebareiakhukh, la, (8)Khukh, Brinskulma, 
Arouzarba, Mesekhriph, Niptoumikh, (9) Maorkharam, Ho! 
Laankhukh, Omph, Bnmbainouioth, (10) Segenbai, Khooukhe, 
Laikham, Armioouth, "You say it, (11) it (sic) being pure, in this 
manner: 'Ogodthatliveth, Olamp thatis lighted,Takrtat, he of 
eternity, bring in (13) Boel! - three times - 'Arbeth-abi, Outhio, O 
great great god, bring Boel (13) in. Tat (bis), bring Boel in!' Three 
times.' Takrtat, he of Eternity, bring (14) Boel in! 'Three times.' 
Barouthi, O great god, bring Boel in!" Three times. 

(i5)The invocation which you pronounce before Phre in the 
morning before reciting to the boy, in order that that which thou 
doest may succeed: (16) 'O great god, Tabao,Basoukham,Amo, 
Akhakharkhan-kraboun-zanouni- (i7)edikomto, Kethou- basa - 
thouri-thmila-alo. 'Seven times. 

(i8) Another method of it again.You rise in the morning from your 
bed early in the day on which you will do it, or any day, (19) in 
order that every thing which you will do shall prosper in your hand, 
you being pure from every abomination. You pronounce this 
invocation before Phre three times or seven times. (20) 'lo, Tabao, 
Sokhom-moa, Okh-okh-khan-bouzanau, An-(2i) iesi, Ekomphtho, 
Ketho, Sethouri, Thmila, Alouapokhri, let everything(22) that I 
shall apply (?)my hand to here to-day, let it happen.' 

Its method. You take a new lamp in which no minium has been put 
and you (put) (23)a clean wick in it, and you fill it with pure 
genuine oil and lay it in aplace cleansed with natron water and 
concealed, (24)and you lay it on a new brick, and you take a boy 
and seat him upon anothernew brick, his face being (25) turned to 
the lamp,and you close his eyes and recite these things that are 
(written) above downinto the boy's head seven times. You make 
him (26)open his eyes. You say to him, ' Do you see the light ? ' 
When he says toyou 'I see the light in the flameof the lamp,' you cry 
at that moment saying(27)'Heoue' nine times. You ask him 
concerningever5l:hing that you wish afterreciting the 
invocationthat you made previouslybefore Phre in the morning. (28) 
You do it in a place with (its) entranceopen to the East, and put the 
face of the lamp turned (blank).You put the face of the boy (29) 
turned (blank) facing the lamp, you being on his left hand.You cry 
down into his head, you strike his head with your second finger, 
(that) of the . . . ., of your (30) right hand. 


(i) Another method of it again, very good, for the lamp. You (say?): 
'Boei; (thrice), I, I, I, A, A, A, Tat, Tat, Tat, the first attendant of 
the great god, he who gives hght exceedingly, (2) the companion of 
the flame, in whose mouth is the flame which is not quenched, the 
great god that dieth not, the great god he that sitteth in the flame, 
who is in the midst of the flame,(3) who is in the lake of heaven, in 
whose hand is the greatness and might of the god, come within in 
the midst of this flame and reveal thyself to this boy here to-day; 
cause him to inquire for me concerning everything about which I 
shall (4)ask him here to-day: for I will glorify thee in heaven before 
Phre, I will glorify thee before the Moon, I will glorify thee on 
Earth, (5) I will glorify thee before him who is on the throne, who 
perisheth not, he of the great glory, in whose hand is the greatness 
and might of the god, he of the great glory, (6) Petery (bis). Pater, 
Emphe (bis),0 great great god, who is above heaven, in whose 
hand is the beautiful staff, who created, deity, deity not having (7) 
created him, come in to me with Boel, Aniel; do thou give strength 
to the eyes of this boy who has my vessel (8) to-day, to (?) cause 
him to see thee, cause his ears to hear thee when thou speakest; 
and do thou inquire for him concerning everything and every word 
as to which I shall ask him here to-day, (9) O great god Sisaouth, 
Akhrempto, come into the midst of this flame he who sitteth on the 
mountain (10) of Gabaon, Takrtat, he of eternity, he who dieth not, 
who liveth forever, bring Boel in, Boel (bis), (i i) Arbethbainouthi, 
great one, O great god (bis) (bring) fetch Boel in. Tat (bis)ihrmg) 
fetch Boel in.' 

You (i2)say these things seven times down into the head of the boy, 
you make him open his eyes, you ask him saying, ' Has the light 

appeared ?' (13) If it be that the Hght has not come forth, you make 
the boy himself speak with his mouth to the lamp. 

Formula: ' Grow, O light,come forth (14) O light, rise O light, lift 
thyself up O light, come forth O light of the god, reveal thyself to 
me, O servant of the god, in whose hand is the command of to- 
day;(i5)who will ask for me.' 

Then he reveals himself to the boy in the moment named. You 
recite these things down into the head of the boy, he looking (16) 
towards the lamp. Do not let him look towards another place except 
the lamp only; if he does not look towards it, then he is afraid.(i7) 
You do all these things, you cease from your inquiry, you return, 
you make him close his eyes, you speak down into his head this 
other (18) invocation which is below, that is, if the gods go away 
and the boy ceases to see them: 'Arkhe-khem-phai, Zeon,(i9) Hele, 
Satrapermet, watch this boy, do not let him be frightened, terrified, 
or scared, and make (20) him return to his original path. Open Tei 
(the Underworld), open Tai (Here).' 

I say it that this vessel-inquiry of the lamp is better (3i)than the 
beginning. This is the method again, its form: you take a new lamp 
in which no minium has been put and you put a wick of (22)clean 
linen in it, you fill it with genuine clean oil; you place it on a new 
brick, you make the boy sit on another brick (23)opposite the lamp; 
you make him shut his eyes, you recite down into bis head 
according to the other method also. 

Another invocation which (24) you recite towards Phre in the 
morning three timesor seven times. Formula : 'lotabao, Sokh- 

ommoa, Okh- (25)-okh-Khan,Bouzanau, Aniesi, Ekomphtho, 
Ketho, Sethori, (26) Thmilaalouapokhri may everything succeed 
that I shall do to-day,' and they will(?) succeed. 

If it be that you do not apply (?) purity to it, it does not succeed; its 
chief matter is purity. 

Another (27) invocation like the one above again. 

Formula: 'Boel,' (thrice), 'I, I, I, A, I, I, I, A, Tat (thrice), he who 
giveth the light exceedingly, the companion of the flame, he of the 
flame which does not (28) perish, the god who liveth, who dieth 
not, he who sitteth in the flame, who is in the midst of the flame 
who is in the lake of heaven, in whose hand is the greatness and 
might (29) of the god, reveal thyself to this boy, Heou (bis), Heo, 
that he may inquire for me, and do thou make him see and let him 
look and let him listen to everything which I (30) ask him, for I will 
glorify thee in heaven, I will glorify thee on earth, I will glorify thee 
before him who is on the throne, who does not perish, (31) he of 
greatness. Peteri (bis), Emphe (bis), O great god who is above 
heaven, in whose hand is the beautiful staff, who created deity, (32) 
deity not having created him, come into the midst of this flame 
with Boel, Aniel, and give strength to the eyes of Heu (bis). 


(1) Of Heu (bis), the son of Heo (bis) for he shall see thee with his 
eyes, and thou shalt make his ears to hear, (2) and shalt speak with 
him of everything; he shall ask thee about it, and thou shalt tell me 
answer truly; for thou art the great god (3) Sabaoth; come down 
with Boel, Tat (bis) ; bring Boel in, come into the midst of this 

flame (4) and inquire for me concerning that which is good; 
Takrtat, he of eternity, bring Boel in,' three times, 'Arbeth, 
(5)Bainouthio, Ogreat god, bring Boel in,' three times. You say 
these things down into the head of the boy, (6) you make him open 
his eyes, you ask him as to everything according to the method 
which is outside, again. 

(7) [Another ?] vessel-inquiry which a physician in the 
Ox5Thynchus nome gave me; youlso make it with a vessel-inquiry 
alone by yourself: (8) 'Sabanern, Nn, Biribat, Ho! (bis) O god 
Sisiaho who (art) on the mountain of Kabaho, (9) in whose hand is 
the creation of the Shoy, favour (?) this boy, may he enchant the 
light, for I am (lo)Fair-face' - another roll says, 'I am the face of 
Nun - in the morning, Halahoat midday, I am (ii)Glad-of-face in 
the evening, I am Phre, the glorious boy whom they call Gartaby 
name; I am he that came forth (12) on the arm of Triphis in the 
East; I am great. Great is my name. Great is my real name, I am Ou, 
Ou (13) is my name, Aou is my real name; I am Lot Mulot, I have 
prevailed (?) (bis), he whose (14) strength is in the flame, he of that 
golden wreath which is on his head, They-yt (bis), To (bis), (15) 
Hatra (bis), the Dog-face (bis). Hail! Anubis, Pharaoh of the 
underworld, let the darkness depart, (16) bring the light in unto me 
to my vessel-inquiry, for I am Horus, son of Osiris, born of Isis, (17) 
the noble boy whom Isis loves, who inquires for his father Osiris 
Onnophris. Hail! Anubis, (18) Pharaoh of the underworld, let the 
darkness depart, bring the light in unto me to my vessel- inquiry, 
(19) my knot(?) here to-day; may I flourish, may he flourish whose 
face is bent down to this vessel here to-day (20) until the gods 
come in, and may they tell me answer truly to my question about 

which I am inquiring (21) here to-day, truly without falsehood 
forth with (?), Hail! Anubis, (22) O creature (?), Child, go forth at 
once, bring to me the gods of this city and (23) the god who gives 
answer (?) to-day, and let him tell me my question about which I 
am asking to-day. 

Nine times. 

(24) You open your eyes or (those of) the boy and you see the light. 
You invoke the light, saying, 'Hail,(25) O light, come forth (bis) O 
light, rise (bis) O light, increase (bis) O light, O that which is 
without, come in.' You say it nine times, (26) until the light 
increases and Anubis comes in. 

When Anubis comes in and takes his stand, (27) then you say to 
Anubis, 'Arise, go forth, bring in to me the gods of this city (or ?) 
village,' (28) then he goes out at the moment named and brings the 
gods in. When you know (29) that the gods have come in, you say 
to Anubis, ' Bring in a table for the gods (30) and let them sit 
down.'When they are seated, you say to Anubis, ' Bring a wine-jar 
in and some cakes; let them eat, let them drink.' (31) While he is 
making them eat and making them drink, you say to Anubis, ' Will 
they inquire for me to-day ? ' If he says 'Yes' again, you say to him, 
(32) 'The god who will ask for me, let him put forth his hand to me 
and let him tell me his name.' When he tells you his name, you ask 
him as to that which you desire. When you have ceased asking him 
as to that which you desire, you send them away. 


(i)[Spell] spoken to the bite of the dog. (?)'I have come forth from 
Arkhah, my mouth being full of blood of a black dog. (3) I spit it 
out, the ... of a dog. O this dog, who is among the ten dogs (4) 
which belong to Anubis, the son of his body, extract thy venom, 
remove thy saliva (?) from me (?) again, (5) If thou dost not extract 
thy venom and remove thy saliva (?), I will take thee (6) up to the 
court of the temple of Osiris, my watch-tower (?). I will do for thee 
the parapage(?) of birds (?) (7) like the voice of Isis, the sorceress 
(?), the mistress of sorcery (?), who bewitches (?) ever3^hing and is 
not bewitched (?) (8) in her name of Isis the sorceress (?).' And you 
pound garlic with kmou (?) (9) and you put it on the wound of the 
bite of the dog; and you address it daily until it is well. 

(10) [Spell] spoken for extracting the venom from, the heart of a 
man who has been made to drink a potion or (?) (11)...' Hail to him! 
(bis) Yablou, the golden cup of Osiris. (12) Isis (and) Osiris (and) 
the great Agathodaemon have drunk from thee; the three gods 
have drunk, I have drunk (13) after them myself; for, dost thou 
make me drunk? dost thou make me suffer shipwreck? dost thou 
make me perish ? (14) dost thou cause me confusion? dost thou 
cause me to be vexed of heart? dost thou cause my mouth (15) to 
speak blasphemy? May I be healed of all poison pus (and) venom 
which have been .... ed to my heart; (16) when I drink thee, may I 
cause them to be cast up in the name of Sarbitha, the daughter (17) 
of the Agathodaemon; for I am Sabra, Briatha, Brisara, Her (18) is 
my name. I am Horus Sharon (?) when he comes from receiving 
acclamation (?), Yaho, (19) the child is my name as my real name.' 
(Pronounced) to a cup of wine (20) and you put (sic) fresh rue and 

put it to it; and you make invocation to it seven times, and make 
(21) the man drink it in the morning before he has eaten. 

[Spell] spoken to the man, when a bone has stuck (22) in his throat. 
'Thou art Shlate, Late, Balate, (23) the white crocodile, which is 
under (?) the ... of the sea of fire, whose belly (24) is full of bones 
of every drowned man. Ho! thou wilt spit forth this bone for me to- 
day, which acts(?) [as] (35) a bone, which which as (?) a 

bandage, which does everything without (26) a thing deficient; for 
I am(?) a lion's fore-part, I am a ram's head (?), I am a leopard's 
tooth; (27) Gr5^hon is my real name, for Osirisis he who is in my 

hand, the man named (28) is he who gives (?) my ' Seven 

times. You make invocation to a little oil. You (29) put the face of 
the man upwards and put it (the oil) down into his mouth, and 
place your finger and (30) your nail [to the ?] two muscles (?) of 
his throat; you make him swallow the oil and make him (31) start 
up suddenly, and you eject the oil which is in his throat 
immediately; (32) then the bone comes up with the oil. 

Spell spoken to the bite of the dog. (33) The exorcism (?) of Amen 
(and ?) Thriphis; say: ' I am this Hakoris (?) strong, Shlamala, 
Malet, secret (?) (34) mighty Shetei, Greshei, Greshei, neb Rent 
Tahne Bahne (?) this [dog ?] (35) this black [one], the dog which 
hath bewitched (?), this dog, he of these four hitch-pups (?), the 
jackal (?) being (?) a son of Ophois.(36) O son of Anubis, hold on (?) 
by thy tooth, let fall thy humours (?); thou art as the face (37) of Set 
against Osiris, thou art as the face of Apop against the Sun; Horus 
the son of Osiris, born of Isis(is he ?) at whom thou didst fill thy 
mouth (i.e. bite), (38) N. son of N. (is he) (?) at whom thou hast 
filled thy mouth; hearken, to this speech. Horus who didst heal 

burning pain (?), who didst go to the abyss, (39) who didst found 
the Earth, hsten, O Yaho, Sabaho, Abiaho by name.' 

You cleanse (?) the wound, you pound (40) salt with . . .; apply it to 

Another: you pound rue with honey, apply it; you say it also to a 
cup of water and make him drink it (?). 


(1) [Spell] spoken to the sting :(2) 'I am the Kings son, eldest and 
first, Anubis.My mother Sekhmet-lsis (?), she came (?) after me (3) 
forth to the land of Syria, to the hill of the land of Heh, to the nome 
of those cannibals, saying, (4) "Haste (bis), quick (bis) my child. 
King's son, eldest and first, Anubis," saying, "Arise and come (5) to 
Egypt, for thy father Osiris is King of Egypt, he is ruler over (6) the 
whole land; all the gods of Egypt are assembled to receive the 
crown from his hand. "(7) The moment of saying those things she 
brought me a blow (?), fell my tail (?) upon me. (8) It (?) gathered 
together (?), it (?) coming to me with a sting (?): I sat down and (9) 
wept. Isis, my mother, sat before me, saying to me, "Do not (10) 
weep (bis), my child. King's son, eldest and first, Anubis; lick with 
thy tongue on thy heart, repeatedly (?) (11) far as the edges of the 
wound (?); lick the edges of the wound (?) as far as the edges of thy 
(12) tail (?). What thou wilt lick up, thou swallowest it; do not spit 
it out on the ground; for thy (13) tongue is the tongue of the 
Agathodaemon, thy tongue (?) is that of Atum." ' (14) And you lick 
it with your tongue, while it is bleeding, immediately; thereafter, 
you recite to a little (15) oil and you recite to it seven times, you put 
it on the sting daily; you (16) soak a strip of linen, you put it on it. 

(17) [The spell] which you say to the oil to put it on the sting daily: 

(18) 'Isis sat reciting to the oil Abartat and lamenting (?) to the true 
oil, (19) saying, "Thou being praised, I will praise thee, O oil, I will 
praise (20) thee, thou being praised by the Agathodaemon; thou 
being applauded (?) by me myself, I will praise thee (21) for ever, O 
herb oil - otherwise true oil - O sweat of the Agathodaemon, amulet 
(?) of Geb. It is Isis who (22) makes invocation to the oil. O true oil, 

0 drop of rain, O water-drawing of the planet Jupiter (23) which 
Cometh down from the sun-boat at dawn, thou wilt make the 
healing effect (?) of the dew of dawn which heaven hath cast (24) 
on to the earth upon every tree, thou wilt heal the limb which is 
paralysed (?), thou wilt make a remedy (25) for him that liveth; for 

1 will employ thee for the sting of the King's son, eldest and first, 
Anubis, my child, (26) that tbou mayest fill it; wilt thou not make it 
well? For I will employ thee for (the ?) sting of N. the son of N., (27) 
that thou mayest fill it; wilt thou not make it well?" ' 

Seven times. 

Spell spoken to fetch a bone out of a throat. (28) 'I am he whose 
head reaches the sky and his feet reach the abyss, who hath raised 
up (?) this crocodile ... in Pizeme (?) (29) of Thebes; for I am Sa, 
Sime, Tamaho, is my correct name, Anouk (bis), saying, hawk's- 
egg (30) is that which is in my mouth, ibis-egg Is that which is in 
my belly; saying, hope of god, bone of man, bone of bird, bone of 
fish, (31) bone of animal, bone of everything, there being nothing 
besides; paying, that which is in thy belly let it come to thy heart; 
that which is in thy heart, (32) let it come to thy mouth; that which 
is in thy mouth, let it come to my hand here to-day; for I am he 

who is in the seven heavens, who standeth (33) in the seven 
sanctuaries, for I am the son of the god who hveth,' 

(Say it) to a cup of water seven times: thou causest the woman (sic) 
to drink it. 


(1) The vessel-inquiry of Osiris. 

(2) 'Hail to him! Osiris, King of the Underworld, lord of burial, 
whose head is in This, and his feet in Thebes, he who giveth answer 
(?) in Abydos, (3) whose (in?) Pashalom, he who is under the 
nubs tree in Meroe, who is on the mountain of Poranos, who is on 
my house to eternity, (4) the house of Netbeoufor ever, he whose 
countenance is as the resemblance (?) of the face of a hawk of linen, 
mighty one whose tail is the tail of a serpent, (5) whose back is the 
back of a crocodile (?), whose hand is a man's, who is girded (?) 
with this girdle of bandage, in whose hand is this wand of 
command, (6) hail to him laho, Sabaho, Atonai, Mistemu, lauiu; 
hail to him, Michael, Sabael, (7) hail to him, Anubis in the nome of 
the dog-faces, he to whom this earth belongs, who carries a wound 
(?) on one foot, (8) hide the darkness in the midst, bring in the 
light for me, come in to me, tell me the answer to that about which 

I am inquiring here to-day.' 

Nine times, (9) until the god come and the light appear. 

You must do it in the manner of the remainder as above again; the 
boy's face being to the East and your own face to the West; you call 
down into his head. 

(lo) [The method] of the scarab of the cup of wine, to make a 
woman love a man. 

You take a fish-faced(?) scarab, this scarab bring small and having 
no horn, it wearing three plates (ii) on the front of its head; you 
find its face thin (?) outwards - or again that which bears two horns 
-. You take it at the rising of the sun; you bind (?) yourself with a 
cloth on the upper part of your back, (12) and bind (?) yourself on 
(?) your face with a strip of palm-fibre, the scarab being on the 
front (?) of your hand; and you address it before the sun when it is 
about to rise, seven times. 

When you have finished, you drown it (13) in some milk of a black 
cow; you approach (?) its head with a hoop (?) of olive wood; you 
leave it till evening in the milk. When evening comes, you (14) take 
it out, you spread its under part with sand, and put a circular strip 
of cloth under it upon the sand, unto four days; you do 
frankincense-burning before it. When the four days have passed, 
and it is dry, (15) you take it before you (lit. your feet), there being 
a cloth spread under it. You divide it down its middle with a bronze 
knife; you take (?) its right half, and your nails of your right hand 
and foot; (16) you cook them on a new potsherd with vine wood, 
you pound them with nine apple-pips together with your urine or 
your sweat free from oil (17) of the bath; you make it into a ball and 
put it in the wine, and speak over it seven times, and you make the 
woman drink it; and you take its other half, the left one, together 
with your nails of your left hand (18) and foot also, and bind them 
in a strip of fine linen, with myrrh and saffron, and bind them to 
your left arm, and lie with the woman with them bound upon you. 

(i9) If you wish to do it again without its being drowned, then you 
do it again on the third of the lunar month. You do it in this 
manner that is above for it again.You pronounce its invocation to it 
before the Sun in the morning, you cook (it), (20) you divide it, you 
do it according to that which is above again in everything. 

[The invocation] which you pronounce to it before the Sun in the 

'Thou art this scarab of real lapis-lazuli; I have taken thee out of 

the door of my temple; thou earnest (?) (21) of bronze to thy 

nose (?), that can eat (?) the herbage that is trampled (?), the field- 
plants (?) that are injured for the great images of the men of Egypt. 
I dispatch thee to N. born of N. (22) to strike her from her heart to 
her belly (bis), to her entrails (bis),to her womb; for she it is who 
hath wept(?) before the Sun in the morning, she saying to the Sun, 
"Come not forth," to the Moon, "Rise not," to the water, "Come not 
to the men of Egypt," to the fields, "Grow not green," and to the 
great trees of the men of Egypt, "Flourish not." (24)1 dispatch thee 
to N. born of N. to injure her from her heart unto her belly (bis), 
unto her entrails (bis), unto her womb, and she shall put herself on 
the road (?) after N. born of N. at every time (?).' 

(25) [The spell] that you pronounce to it, while it is in the milk. 

'Woe(?), great (bis), woe(?), my(?) great, woe (?) his (?) Nun, woe 
(?) his (?) love. O scarab (bis), thou art the eye of Phre, the heart (?) 

(26) of Osiris, the open-hand (?) of Shu, thou approachest in this 
condition in which Osiris thy father went, on account of N. born of 
N. until fire is put to her heart and the flame (27) toher flesh, until 
she shall follow (?) N. born of N., unto every place in which he is.' 

[The spell] which you utter to it when you cook it: 

'O my beautiful child, the youth of oil-eating (?), (28) thou who 
didst cast semen and who dost cast semen among all the gods, 
whom he that is little (and ?) he that is great found among the two 
great enneads in the East of Egypt, (29) who cometh forth as a 
black scarab on a stem of papyrus-reed; I know thy name, I know 
thy .... "the work of two stars" is thy name, (30) I cast forth fury 
upon thee to-day: Nephalam, Balla, Balkha(?), lophphe; for every 
burning, every heat, every fire that thou makest (31) to-day, thou 
shalt make them in the heart, the lungs, the liver (?), the spleen, 
the womb, the great viscera, the little viscera, the ribs, the flesh, the 
bones, in every limb, (32) in the skin of N. born of N. until she 
follow (?) N. born of N. to every place in which he is.' 

[The spell] that you pronounce to it in the wine: 

'O scarab (bis), thou art the scarab (33) of real lapis-lazuli. thou art 
the eye of Phre, thou art the eye of Atum, the open-hand (?) of Shu, 
the heart (?) of Osiris,thou art that black bull, the first, that came 
forth from Nun, (34) the beauty of Isis being with thee; thou art 
Raks, Raparaks, the blood of this wild boar(?) which they brought 

from the land of Syria unto Egypt to the wine, (35) I send thee; 

wilt thou go on my errand? Wilt thou do it? Thou sayest, "Send me 
to the thirsty, that his thirst may be quenched, and to the canal that 
it may be dried up, and to the sand of the snyt that it may be 
scattered without (36) wind, and to the papyrus of Buto that the 
blade may be applied to it, while Horus is saved for (?) Isis, 

catastrophes grow great for the Egyptians, so that not a man or 
woman is left in their midst." 

I (37) send thee; do hke unto these; I send thee down to the heart 
of N. born of N. and do thou make fire in her body, flame in her 
entrails, put the madness to her heart, (38) the fever (?) to her 
flesh; let her make the pursuit of the "Shoulder"-constellation after 
the "Hippopotamus"-constellation ;let her make (39) the 
movements of the sunshine after the shadow, she following after N. 
born of N. to every place in which he is, she loving him, she being 
mad for him, she not knowing the place of the earth in which(4o) 
she is. Take away her sleep by night;give her lamentation and 
anxiety by day; let her not cat, let her not drink,let her not sleep, let 
her not eatunder (41 ) the shade of her house untilshe follow (?) 
him to every placein. which he is, her heart forgetting,her eye 
flying, her glance turned (?), she not knowing the place (42) of the 
earth in which she is, until she see him, hereye after his eye, her 
heart after his heart, her hand after his hand, shegiving to him 

every Let fly (?) the tip other feet (43) after his heels in the 

streetat all times withoutfail at any time. Quick (bis), hasten (bis).' 


(1) Behold! (spell?) of the name of the Great-of-Five which they 
pronounce to every spirit. There is none that is (2) stronger than it 
in the books. If you pronounce these charms to any vessel, (3) then 
the gods depart not before you have questioned them concerning 
every word and they have told you (4) the answer about heaven, 
earth, and the underworld, a distant inquiry (?), water, (5) (and) 
the fields .A charm which is in the power (?) of a man to pronounce. 


(i) A spell to inflict (?) Catalepsy (?) 

Formula. (2) You take an ass's head, and you place it between your 
feet opposite the sun in the morning when it is about to rise, (3) 
opposite it again in the evening when it goes to the setting, and you 
anoint your right foot with set-stone (4)of Syria, and your left foot 
with clay, the soles (?) of your foot also and place your right hand 

(5) in front and your left hand behind, the head being between 
them. You anoint your hand, of your two hands, with ass's blood, 

(6) and the twofnz of your mouth, and utter these charms towards 
the sun in the morning and evening of four days, then (7) he sleeps. 
If you wish to make him die, you do it for seven days, you do its 
magic, you bind a thread of palm-fibre (8) to your hand, a mat (?) 
of wild palm-fibre to your phallus and your head; very excellent. 

This is the invocation which you utter before the sun: 

(9) 'I invoke thee who art in the void air, terrible, invisible, (10) 
almighty, god of gods dealing destruction and making desolate, O 
thou that hatest (11) a household well established. When thou wast 
cast out of Egypt and out of (12) the country thou wast entitled, 
"He that destroyeth all and is unconquered."(i3)Invoke thee, 
T)^hon Set, I perform thy ceremonies of divination, (14) for I 
invoke thee by thy powerful name in (words ?) which thou canst 
not (15) refuse to hear; lo erbeth, lopakerbeth, lobolkhoseth, 
lopatathnax, (i6)Iosoro,Ioneboutosoualeth, Aktiophi, Ereskhigal, 
Neboposoaleth, (17) Aberamenthoou, Lerthexanax, Ethreluoth, 
Nemareba, Aemina, (18) entirely (?) come to me and approach and 
strike down Him or Her with frost and (19) fire; he has wronged 

me, and has poured out the blood of Typhon(?) beside (?) him (20) 
or her: therefore I do these things.' 

Common form. 

(21) To divine, opposite the moon. You do it by vessel-inquiry 
alone or (with) a child. If it is you who will inquire, you fill your eye 

(22) with green eye-paint (and) stibium, you stand on a high place, 
on the top of your house, you address the moon when it fills (23) 
theuzat on the 15th day, you being pure for three days; you 
pronounce this invocation to the moon seven or nine times until he 
appear to you (34) and speak to you ; ' Ho! Sax, Arnun, Sax, 
Abrasax; for thou art the moon, (25) the chief of the stars, he that 
did form them, listen to the things that Ihave(?) said, follow the 
(words) of my mouth, reveal thyself to me. Than, (26)Thana, 
Thanatha, otherwise Thei, this is my correct name. 

'Nine (times)of saying it until she (sic) reveal herself to thee. 

(37)Another form of it again, to be pronounced to the moon. 

You paint your eye with this paint, you (going ?) up before the 
moon when it fills the uzat,then you see the figure of the god in the 
uzat (28)speaking unto you. 'I am Hah, Qo, Amro, Ma-amt, Mete is 
my name, for I am . . . bai. So, Akanakoup, (29) Meikh, Akh, Akh, 
Hy, Meikh is my true (bis) .... eternity, I am Khelbai, Setet, Khen 
(?)-em-nefer is my name, Sro, Oshenbet, is my correct name.' 

(30) Say it nine times.You stand opposite the moon, your eye being 
filled with this ointment; - green eye-paint (and) stibium, grind 
with Syrian honey and put the gall of a chick (31) full grown to it. 

and put it on a thing of glass, and lay it (by) for yourself in a hidden 
place till the time when you are ready for it; then you do it again as 


(la) For catalepsy (?) - another: 

(2a) flour of wild dates (3a) which has been beaten up(?) with milk, 
(4a) ....(5a) you make them up together into a ball, (and) put in the 
wine. (i)A medicament, when you wish to drug(?) a man - tested: - 
(2) scammony root, 1 drachm, (3) opium, 1 drachm; pound with 
milk, (4) you make it into a ball and put it into some food (?), (5) 
which is cooked (?), and let him eat it; then he is upset. 

(6) Another, when you wish to make a man sleep for two days: - (7) 
mandragora root, 1 ounce, (8) liquorice ( ?), 1 ounce, (9) 
hyoscyamus, 1 ounce, (10) ivy, 1 ounce; (11) you pound them like 
(sic) a /oA:-measure of wine. 

If you wish to do it cleverly (?) (12) you take four portions to each 
one of them with an uteh of wine, (13) you moisten them from 
morning to evening; you clarify them, (14) you make them drink it; 
very good. 

Another, the fourth (?) : - pips (?) [of] (15) apple, 1 stater (?), 1 kite, 
pound with flour,(i6) You make it into a cake (?); you make the 
man eat it, whom you wish. 

(17) A medicament for making a man sleep; very good: 

- (i8) pips (?) of apple, i stater (?), i drachma, mandragora root, 4 
drachmas, (19) ivy, 4 drachmas; pound together; you put fifteen 
(20) uteh of wine to it; you put it into a glass glyt; (21) you keep it. 

If you wish to give it, you put a little into a cup of wine, (22) you 
give it to the man. 

Ivy: it grows in gardens, (23) its leaf is like the leaf of shekam, 
being divided into three lobes (24) like a vineleaf; It (the leaf) is 
one palm in measurement; its blossom (25) is like silver - another 
says gold. 

Another: gall of an Alexandrian weasel, (26) you add it to any food. 
Another: a two-tailed lizard. 

(27) A medicament for catalepsy (?) : gall of cerastes, pips(?) of 
western apples, herb of klo, (28)pound them together; make into a 
pill, put (it) into the food(?). 

(29) Another: you put camel's blood with the blood of a dead man 

(30) into the wine; you make the man drink it; then he dies. 

(31) Another: you put a night-jar's blood into his eye; then he is 

(32) Another: you put a bat's blood;this is the manner of it again. 

(33) Another: you drown a hawk in ajar of wine; you make the 
man drink it; (34.) then it does its work. 

A shrew-mouse (?) in the same way; it does (35) its work also. Its 
gall also, you add it to the wine, (36)then it does its work very 

You put the gall (37)of an Alexandrian weasel into any food; then it 
does its work. 

You put a (38) two-tailed lizard into the oil and you cook it with it; 
you anoint (39) the man with it; then it does its work. 


(1) The words of the lamp for inquiry of the boy. 

(2) Formula: 'Te, Te, Ik, Tatak, Thethe, (3) Sati, Santaski, 
Kromakat, (4) Pataxurai, Kaleu-pankat, A-a-tieui, (5) Makat- 
sitakat, Hati, Hat-ro, E-o-e, (6) Hau(?). E; may they say to me an 
answer to everything concerning which I ask here to-day, (7) for I 
am Harpocrates in Mendes, for I am Isis the Wise; (8) the speech 
of my mouth comes to pass.' 

Say seven times. 

You take a new lamp(?), (9)you put a clean linen wick into it 
brought from a temple, (10) and you set it on a new brick, brought 
from the mould(?) and clean, on which (11) no man has 
mounted(?); you set it upright, you place the lamp(?) (12) on it; 
you put genuine oil in it, or Oasis oil, (13) and you set two new 
bricks under you; you place the boy between (14) your feet; you 
recite the charms aforesaid down into the head of the boy, (15) 
your hand being over his eyes; you offer myrrh upon a willow leaf 
(16) before the lamp. You do it in a darkplace, the door of it (17) 

opening to the East or the South, and no cellar being underneath it, 
(18) You do not allow the light to come into the place aforesaid; 
you purify the said place beforehand. (19) You push the boy's back 
to the opening of the niche. 

When you have finished, you recite a charm, (20) bringing your 
hand over his eyes, A boy who has not yet gone with a woman, (21) 
is he] whom you make come before you (?); you question him, 
saying. 'What do you see?'(22) then he tells you about everything 
that you ask him. (23) 

A method to put the heart of a woman after a man; done in one 
moment (?), and it comes to pass instantly. 

You take (24) a swallow (?) alive, together with a hoopoe, (both) 
alive. Ointment made for them: (25) blood, of a male ass, blood of 
the tick (?) of a black cow; you anoint (26) their heads with lotus 
ointment; you utter a cry before the sun in his moment of rising; 
(27) you cut off the heads of the two; you take the heart out of the 
right ribs (28) of both of them; you anoint it with the ass's blood 
and the blood of the tick (?) of a black cow, (29) as aforesaid; you 
put them into an ass's skin you lay them in the sun until they (30) 
are dry for four days; when the four days have passed, you pound 
them, you put them into a (31) box; you lay it in your house. 

When you wish to make a woman love a man, you take (32) the 
shaving (?) of a pleasure-wood (?); you recite these correct names 
before them; (33) you put it into a cup of wine or beer; you give it 
to the woman and she drinks it. 

(34) 'I am Bira, Akhel, La-akh, Sasm-fialo(?), (35) Ples-plun, loane, 
Sabaathal, Sasupu, (36) Nithi, put the heart of N. born of N. after N. 
born of N. in (37) these hours to-day.' 

Seven times. You do it on the fourteenth of the lunar month. Very 


(1) Another invocation again of this cup of wine: 

(2) 'Birakethat, (3) Samara, (4) Pilpioun, (5) Iahout,(6) Sabaouth, 
(7, 8) Saipounithas.' 

(9) Another invocation belonging to it again, in another book: 

(10) 'I am Biraka-that, (11) Lathat, (12) Sasmira,(i3) Plipron, (14) 
Takon,(i5) Sabakhot, (16) Sasoupounitha,(i7) send the heart of N. 
after (18) Sasoupounithas.' 


(1) Another vessel-divination, (to be done) alone, for seeing the 
bark of Phre. 

The invocation which you recite : 'Open to me O (?) heaven, 
mother of the gods! (2) Let me see the bark of Phre going up and 
going down in it; for I am Geb, heir of the gods; prayer is what I 
make before Phre my father (3) on account of a thing that hath 
proceeded from me. O Heknet, great one, lady of the shrine, the 
Rishtret open to me, mistress of spirits, (4) open to me primal 
heaven; let me worship the angels! for I am Geb, heir of the gods. 

Hail! ye seven kings; ho! ye seven (5) Monts, bull that engendereth, 
lord of strength, that enlighteneth the earth, soul of the abyss(?). 
Ho! lion as lion of(?) the abyss (?), bull of the night; (6) hail! thou 
that rulest the people of the East, Noun, great one, lofty one; hail! 
soul of a ram, soul of the people of the West; hail! soul of souls, (7) 
bull of the night, bull (?) of (two ?) bulls, son of Nut. Open to me, I 
am the Piercer of earth, he that came forth from Geb; hail! I am (8) 
I, I, I, E, E, E, He, He, He, Ho, Ho, Ho; I am Anepo, Miri-po-re, 
Maat(?) lb, Thibai (9) great, Aroui. Ouoou, laho. The spirit- 
gathering; blood of a smune-goose, blood of a hoopoe, blood of a 
nightjar, (10) ankh-amu plant, senepe plant, Great-of-Amen-plant, 
qes-ankh stone, genuine lapis-lazuli, myrrh, ' foot-print (?)-of-lsis' 
plant, pound and make into a ball, and paint (11) your eyes with it 
upon (?) a goat's tear, with a 'pleasure-wood' of ani or ebony; you 
tie yourself at your side (12) with a strip (?) of male-palm fibre. 

(13) The way of making the vessel-inquiry of the lamp. You take a 
clean bright lamp without putting minium (or) gum-water into it, 
its wick being of fine linen; you fill it with genuine oil (14) or oil of 
dew; you tie it with four threads of linen which have not been 
cooked (?); you hang it on an East wall (on) (15) a peg of bay-wood; 
you make the boy stand before it, he being pure and not having 
gone with a woman; you cover his eyes with your hand; (16) you 
light the lamp and you recite down into his head, unto seven times; 
you make him open his eyes; you ask him, saying, 'What are the 
things which you have seen?' (17) If he says, 'I have seen, the gods 
about the lamp,' then they tell him answer concerning that which 
they will be asked, if you wish to do it by yourself alone, (18) you 
fill your eyes with the ointment aforesaid; you stand up opposite 

the lamp when ahght; you recite to it seven times with your eyes 
shut; when yon have finished, you open (19) your eyes;then you see 
the gods behind(?) you; you speak with them concerning that 
which you desire: you ought to do it in a dark place. 

The invocation which you recite, (20) formula: ' I am 
Manebal,Ghethethoni, Khabakhel, let me worship thee, the child of 
Arpithnapira,(2i) Pileasa,Gnuriph-arisa, Teni-irissa,Psi,Psi, Irissa, 
(22) Gimituru-phu-sa, Okmatsisa,Oreobazagra, Pertaomekh, (23) 
Peragomekh, Sakmeph, come into me, and inquire for me about 
the inquiry which I am inquiring about, truthfully without (24) 

Its spirit-gathering: the ointment which you put on your eyes, 
when you are about to make any divination by the lamp, (25) You 
take some flowers of the Greek bean; you find them in the place of 
the lupin-seller; you take them fresh, (26) and put them into a lok 
of glass; you close its mouth very carefully for twenty days in a 
hidden dark place; after (27) twenty days you take it forth, you 
open it; then you find a pair (?) of testicles and a phallus inside it; 
you leave it for forty days; and you take it (28) forth; you open it; 
then you find that it has become bloody; you must put it into 
something of glass, and you put the glass thing into a pottery (thing) 
(29) in a place hidden at all times. When you wish to make a 
divination (?) by the lamp with it, you fill your eyes with this blood 
aforesaid, you proceed to lie down, (30) or you stand opposite the 
lamp; you recite this invocation aforesaid; then you see the god 
behind(?) you, while you are standing up or lying down. 

Excellent (bis) and tried(?). 

(3i) You write this name on the strip of the wick of the lamp in 
myrrh ink, 'Bakhukhsikhukh,'or, as says another book, 'Kimeithoro 
Phosse'; (32)this method which is written above is the method, of 
the divination of Manebai. 

If you wish to do it (33) by inquiry of thelamp, this also is the form, 
it is also profitable for(?) the divination of Muribai. If you do it (34) 
by vessel-inquiry of the lamp, you fill the lamp aforesaid on a new 
brick; you make the boy stand upright (35) before the lamp, he 
having his face covered; you recite to his head, standing over him, 
this Greek invocation; when you have finished, you uncover (36) 
his face, then he answers you truthfully. 


(1) Another mode of vessel-inquiry, alone. 

Formula:'! am the lord of Spirits, Oridimbai, Sonadir, Episghes, 
Emmime, (2) Tho-gom-phrur, Phirim-phuni is thy name; Mimi, 
Bihiu (bis), Gthethoni, I am Ubaste, Ptho, (3) Balkham born of 
Binui, Sphe, Phas, I am Baptho, Gam-mi-satra is thy name, Mi- 
meo, (4) lanume.' 

Its spirit-gathering : you go to a clean place, you take a vessel of 
bronze, you wash it with water of natron, you put a /ofc-measure (5) 
of oil to it; you place it on the ground; you light a bronze lamp; you 
put it on the ground by the bronze vessel; (6) you cover yourself 
with a clean linen robe, you and the vessel; you recite into the 
vessel, your eyes being shut, for seven times; you open your eyes; 
(7) you ask it concerning that which you wish; if you wish to make 

the gods of the vessel speak with you with their mouths to your 
mouth, you cry: 'laho, (8) Iph, Eoe, Kintathour, Nephar, Aphoe.' 

\Then they make answer to you concerning everything concerning 
which you will ask of it again. If they do not tell you answer, you 
recite (9) this other name: ' Gogethix, Mantounoboe, Kokhir- 
rhodor, Dondroma, Lephoker, (10) Kephaersore.' 

If you recite these, then they inquire for you truthfully. 

(ii)Another vessel-inquiry; you put vegetable oil into it; you must 
proceed as above. 

\Formula: 'Speak unto me (bis), Hamset, god of the gods of 
darkness, (12) every demon, every shade that is in the West and the 
East, he that hath died hath done it(?), rise up to me (bis), O thou 
living soul, O thou breathing soul, may (13) my vessel go forth, my 
knot(?) here to-day, for the sake of the veasel of Isis the Great, who 
inquireth for her husband, who seeketh for her brother; Menash 
r6isj,(i4)Menaof (bis).' Say, 'Menash (bis), Menanf (bis), Phoni 
(bis),' a multitude of times; and you say to the boy, 'Say, (15) 
"Depart, O darkness; come to me O light," and open your eyes at 

Then the gods come in and tell thee answer to everything. 

(1) Behold a form of inquiry of the sun, of which they say it is well 

Its spirit-gathering: you take a young boy who is pure, you make 
the spirit-formula (?) (2) which is written for it; you take him 
before the sun; you make him stand on a new brick at the moment 
at which (3) the sun shall rise, and it comes up entirely with the 
entire(?) disk; you put a new mat(?) of linen behind (?) him; you (4) 
make him shut his eyes; you stand upright over him; you recite 
down into his head; you strike down on (5) his head with your Ra- 
finger of your right hand, after filling his eye with the paint which 
you made before: (6) ' Nasira, Oapkis, Shfe (bis), Bibiou (bis) is thy 
true name (bis), Lotus, open to me heaven(7) in its breadth and 
height, bring to me the light which is pure; let the god come to me, 
who has the command, and let him say to me (8) answer to 
everything which I am asking here to-day, in truth without 
falsehood therein (?), Arkhnoutsi, Etale, Tal, (9) Nasira, Yarmekh, 
Nasera, Amptho, Kho, Amamarkar, Tel, Yaeo, (10) Nasira, Hakia, 
Lotus, Khzisiph, Aho, Atone, I .L E. O, Balbel, (11) let the pure light 
come to me; let the boy be (?) enchanted; let answer be given me; 
let the god who has the command come to me and tell (12) me 
answer to everything about which I shall ask, in truth without 
falsehood therein.' 

Thereafter you recite his compulsion another (13) seven times, his 
eyes being shut. 

Formula: 'Si. si. pi. thiripi S . A. E. O. Nkhab (14) Hrabaot, 
Phakthiop, Anasan, Kraana, Kratris, Ima- (15) ptaraphne, Araphnu, 
come to the boy; let the god who has the command come to him, 
let him tell me answer to everything (16) which I shall ask here to- 

If the light is slow to come within, you say, 'Ke, Ke, Salsoatha, Ippel, 
(17) Sirba,' seven times; you put frankincense (?) on the brazier, 
you utter this great name after all those, you utter it (18) from 
beginning to end, and vice versa, four times, 
Auebothiabathabaithobeua ; (19) you say: 'Let the boy see the light, 
let the god who has the command come in; let him tell me answer 
to everything about which I shall ask (20) here to-day, in truth 
without falsehood therein.' 

Behold, another form of it again. You take the boy to an upper lofty 
(21) place, you make him stand in a place where there is a large 
window before him, its opening looking to the East where the sun 
shines (22) in rising into it; you paint the boy's eye with the paint 

which is prescribed for it, you recite to him times or 

seventimes; you stand over him; you make him (23) gaze before 
the sun when it fills the uzat, he standing upright on a new brick, 
there being a new linen robe behind him (?), and his eyes being 
closed; (24) you recite down into his head; you strike on his head 
with your finger described above; you offer frankincense (?) before 
him; when you have finished you make him open his eyes, (25) 
then he sees the gods behind him (?) speaking with him. 

[The ointment] which you put in the boy's eyes when he goes to 
any vessel-inquiry of the sun (26). You take two ... of the river 
both alive, you bum one of them with vine-wood before the sun, 
you put the blood of the other to (?) it, (27) you pound it with it 
with myrrh, you make them into a pill, they measuring one finger 

(in length); you .... put into his eyes; you take a kohl-pot (?) of 

and a kohl-stick (?) of (28) lei (?). You pound this drug with a little 
set-stone(?) of Ethiopia and with Egyptian vine-water; you fill your 

eyes with it, you (29) fill your eyes with this drug, you look towards 
the sun when it fills the uzat, your eyes being open towards it; then 
he appears to you, he gives you answer (?) (30) to everything. Its 
chief point is purity; it is profitable for the boy, and it is profitable 
to you yourself as a. person (acting) alone. 


(1) Eyebrow of Ra: ophrus eliou.(3) Eyebrow of the moon, ophrus 
selenes.(3) These are some herbs. 

(4) Heliogonon. (5) Selenegonon. (6) These are some herbs. 

(7) Spurge, (8) which is that small herb that is in the gardens (9) 
and which exudes milk.(io) If you put its milk on a man's skin, (11) 
it causes a blister. 


(1) Chamaemelon. 'Clean-straw' is its name. 

(2) Leucanthemon. 'Prick-horse' (?) is its name. 

\(3) Crinanthemon. 'None is better than I'is its name. 

(4) Chrysanthemon, 'Fine-face' is its name, otherwise said 'the gold 
flower' (5) of the wreath-seller; its leaf is strong, itsstemiscold (?), 

(6) its flower is golden; its leaf is like crinanthemon. 

(7) Magnesia, (8) manesia.(9) A stone of. . .. black like (10) stibium; 
when you grind it, it is black. 

(11) Magnes. Magnesia viva; it is brought (i.e. imported ?). 

(12) Maknes. When you scrape it, it is black. 

(13) Maknes of man. It is brought (14) from India (?); when you 
scrape it (15) it exudes blood. 

(16) To drug(?) your enemy; (17) an aps/ze-beetle(?); you burn it 
with styrax(?), (18) you pound it together with one drachma of 
apple (19) and a . . .. and you.... (20) and you put a 


(1) Medicament [for a catalepsy (?). Gall of cerasjtes, (2) pips (?) of 
western apples, herb of klo. (3) Grind them together, make into a 
ball, put it into wine(?), and drink (?). 

(4) Lees of wine. (5) It is a white stone like (6) galbanum. There is 
another sort which is madeCy) into lime (?). The way to know it (8) 
that it is genuine is this. You grind a little (9) with water; you rub it 
on the skin (10) of a man for a short time; then it (11) removes the 
skin, (12) Its name in Greek (?) aphroselenon, (13) 'foam of the 
moon,' It is a white stone. 

(14) A medicament for making a woman love a man: fruit(?) of 
acacia; (15) grind with honey, anoint his phallus with it, (16) you 
(sic) lie with the woman. 

(17) ' Foam of the moon'; this is a white stone like (i8)glass,(when?) 
it is rubbed into fragments like orpiment. 


(i) Medicament for an ear that is watery. (2) Salt, heat with good 
wine; (3) you apply to it after cleansing (?) it first.(4) You scrape 
salt, heat with wine; (5) you apply to it for four days. 

(6) Salamandra, (7) a small lizard (8) which is of the colour of 
chrysolite. (9). It has no feet. 

(10) 'Ram's horn,' kephalike is its name, (11) a herb which is like a 
wild fennel bush; (12) its leaf and its stem are incised like (13) the 
'love-man' plant: you pound it when it is dry, you gather(?) it, (14) 
you make it into a dry powder; you apply it to any wound; then it is 

Styrax, (16) it grows like slom (?) (17) as to its leaf; its seed is 
twisted (18) like the 'ram's horn' plant, it bearing (19) a small spine 
at its end. 


(1) A medicament to stop blood juice of 'Great Nile(?)' plant (2) 
together with beer; you make the woman drink it in the morning (3) 
before she has eaten; then it stops. 

(4) The way to know it of a woman whether she is enceinte: you 
make the woman (5)pass her water on this herb as above again (6) 
in the evening; when the morning comes and if you find the plant 

(7) scorched (?), she will not conceive; if you find it (8) flourishing, 
she will conceive. 

(9) A medicament to stop blood : leaf of sheisha, (10) leaf of 'fly- 
bronze,' fresh; pound, put (it) (11) on you, you lie with the woman. 

Another: myrrh, (12) garHc, gall of a gazelle; pound with (13) old 
scented wine; put (it) on you, you lie with her, 

(14) Asphodelos, (15) otherwise called 'wild onion.' (16) Khelkebe, 
(17) otherwise called 'wild garlic' 


(1) A remedy to cure water in a woman. The first remedy; salt and 
oil; pound; apply to the vulva (?) daily (?) two days. 

(2) After the two days, the second remedy: white lead, you pound it 
with a little pigment from an oil-dealer (3) very carefully; you put 
true oil of fine quality to it, together with an egg and pound them; 
you take a strip (4) of linen cloth which is fine-spun(?); you dip it 
in this medicament. She must bathe in the bath, she must(5) wash 
in good wine; you put the medicated strip on her; you draw(?) it in 
(and) (6) out of her vulva for a short time, like the phallus of a man, 
until the medicament (7) spreads (?), you remove it, you leave her 
till evening; when evening comes, you dip a bandage (?) in genuine 
honey, (8) you put it on her until morning, for three, otherwise 
said four, days. 


(1) Another to follow it: juice of a cucumber which has been rubbed 
down, one ladleful (?), water of the ears of a Ar/e-animal, one 
ladleful (?) like the ladle (2) of a (wine-)cup; you add a uteh- 
measure of good wine to them; and she drinks it at midday, before 
she has (3) eaten anything whatever, after bathing in the bath, 
which she has done before; when evening comes, you put the rag (?) 
(4) with honey on her as above for sevendays. 

Another to follow : you take a new dish; you put (5) ten uteh- 
measures of old sweet wine on it; you put a half kite of fresh rue on 
it from (6) dawn till midday; let her bathe in the bath, and come 
out and drink it. When it is evening (7) you put honey on her as 
above again for seven days. 


(1) Gout 

(2) You make the man sit down; you place clay under the feet of the 
man ; (3) you put .... to it(?), his feet resting on it; you ask (4) the 
man, saying, ' Has it hearkened ? ' for three days. Thereafter you 
take an ant (?), (5) you cook it in oil of henna; you anoint his feet (6) 
with it. When you have finished, you take Alexandrian figs and 
dried grapes (7) and potentilla; you pound them with wine; you 
anoint him besides (?) (8) these; and you blow on him. with your 


(1) Another: 

(2) 1 kite of Euphorbia, (3) 1/2 kite of pepper, (4) 1 stater (?) of 
pyrethrum (?), (5) 1 stater (?) of adarces, (6) native sulphur, 1 
stater (?), (7) any wine 6 staters (?); (8) genuine oil . . .. you pound 
them, (9) you make them into a poultice; apply to the part (10) 
which is painful of the man. 


(1) Another talisman for the foot of the gouty man: 

(2) you write these names on a strip (3) of silver or tin; you put it 
(4) on a deer-skin, you bind it to the foot (5) of the man named, 
derma elaphion, with the two feet. (6) 'thembarathem (7) 
ourembrenoutipe (8) aiokhthou (9) semmarathemmou (lo)naioou. 
Let N.son of N. recover (11) from every pain which is in his feet and 
two legs.' 

(12) You do it when the moon is in the constellation of Leo. 

(1) Remedy for a ... . foot (?): 

(2) garlic, frankincense, (3) old .... (4) genuine oil ; pound 
(together); anoint him (5) with it. When it is dry, you wash it (6) 
with cold water; then he recovers. 

(7) Remedy for a foot which is much sprained(?); very excellent. 

(8) You wash his foot with juice of cucumber; (9) you rub it well on 
his foot. 

(10) Another: 

sycomore figs(?) of . . .; fruit(?) of acacia, (11) persea fruit(?); 
pound (together); apply (it) to him. (12) ' I am the great Shaay 
(otherwise said, the great Sheray ?), who makes magic for the great 
Triphis, the lady of Koou (?)(3) Lol Milol, the water of thy brother 
(?) is that which is in my mouth, the fat of Hathor, worthy of love, 
is (4) that which is in my heart; my heart yearns, my heart loves. 
The(?) longing such as a she-cat (5) feels for a male cat, a longing 
such as a she-wolf feels for a he-wolf, a longing such as a bitch feels 

for(6) a dog, the longing which the god, the son of Sopd(?), felt for 
Moses going to the hill of Ninaretos (7) to offer water unto his god, 
his lord, his Yaho, Sabaho, his Glemura-muse, Plerube . , S Mi (8) 
Ahrasax, Senldai - let N. daughter of N. feel it for N. son of N.; (9) 

let her feel a yearning, a love, a madness great she seeking for 

him (going) to every place. The fury (10) of Yaho, Sabaho, Horyo . . 
Pantokrator, Antorgator, (11) Arbanthala., Thalo, Thalax: for I cast 
fury upon you 


(1) 'of the great gods of Egypt: fill your hands with flames and fire; 
employ it, cast it on the heart of N. daughter of N. (2) Waste her 
away, thou (?) demon; take her sleep, thou (?) man of Amenti; may 
the house(3) of her father and her mother (and) the places where 

she is ; call out "There is flame of fire (4) to her," while she 

speaks, saying, "Have mercy (?)," she standing outside and 
murmuring "Have mercy (?).' 

For I am an agent (?) of Geb, (5) Horus Ron Phre is my name, tear 
her name out of Egypt for forty days, thirty-three months, 175 days, 
the complement of six months, (6) Gyre, Thee, Pysytu, Ekoimi, 

Seven times. 

Dung of crocodile, a little placenta (?) of a she-ass, (7) together 
with sisymbrium, seven oipi of antelope's dung, the gall of a male 
goat, and first-fruits of oil: (8) you heat them with stalks of flax. 
You recite to it seven times for seven days; you anoint your phallus 
(9) with it, you lie with the woman; you anoint the breast (?) of the 

woman also. 

(lo) To cause a woman to love her husband: pods of acacia, pound 
with honey, anoint your phallus with it (ii) and lie with the woman. 

To make a woman amare coitum suum. 

Foam of a stallion's mouth. Anoint your phallus with it and lie with 
the woman. 


(i) To make (2) alum, 1 drachm, (3) pepper, 1 drachm, (4) 

mhnknwt, dried, 4 drachms, (5) satyrium, 4 drachms. (6) Pound 
together into a dry medicament; do your business with it (7) like 
that which you know with any woman. 


(1) The names of the gods whom you want(?) when you are about 
(?) to bring in a criminal [by vase-questioning ?] (2) Maskelli, 
Maskello, Phnoukentabao, (3) Hreksyktho, Perykthon, 
Perypeganex, (4) Areobasagra, otherwise Obasagra. (5) This name 
you utter it before a ship that is about (?) to founder on account of 
the names (6) of Dioscoros, which are within, and it is safe. You 
recite them to the bowl (?) of Adonai, which is written(7) outside. 
It will do a mighty work (?) bringing in a criminal. 


(A row of figures, viz. 3 scarabs, 3 hawks, and 3 goats.) (1) 
'Armioout (otherwise Armiouth), Sithani, Outhani, (2) Aryamnoi, 

Sobrtat, Birbat, Misiiythat,(3) Amsietharmithat: bring N. daughter 
of N. out of her abodes (4) in which she is, to any house and any 
place which N. son of N. is in ; she loving him and craving for him, 
(5) she making the gift of his desire(?) at every moment.' 

You write this in myrrh ink on a strip (6) of clean fine linen, and 
you put it in a clean new lamp, which is filled with genuine oil, (7) 
in your house from evening till morning. If you find a hair of the 
woman to put in the wick, it is excellent. 


(1) A spell to bring [a woman] to a man (and ?)to send dreams, 
otherwise said, to dream dreams, also. 

\(2) (A line of symbols or secret signs.) (3) You write this on a 
rush-leaf and you place (it) under your head; you go to sleep;then 
(4) it makes dreams and it sends dreams. If you will do it to send 
dreams, you put it (the leaf) on the mouth of a mummy. (5) It 
brings a woman also; you write this name on the rush-leaf with the 
blood of a .... or a hoopoe (?); (6) and you put the hair of the 
woman in the leaf, and put it on the mouth of the mummy; and you 
write on the earth with this name, saying: ' Bring (7) N. daughter of 
N. to the house in the sleeping-place in which is N. son of N.' (8) 
Now it is also an agogimon. 


(4) 'Reveal thyself to me, god N., (5) and speak to me concerning 
that which I shall ask thee, (6) truthfully, without telling me (7) 

Saffron, 2 (measures), (8) stibium of Koptos, 2 (measures), (9) 
pound together with blood of a hzard, (10) make into a ball, and 
rub it with milk (11) of one who has born a male child. Put (it) in 
his right eye; you make invocation (?) to him (?) (13) before any 
lamp or the 'Shoulder' constellation in the evening. 


(1) A spell for bringing a woman out of her house. 

You take a ....(2) of a wild she-cat; you dry it; you take a heel- 
tendon (?) [of a (?).... which has been (?)] (3) drowned; you fashion 
a ring the body (? bezel) of which is variegated (?) with gold [in the 
form of two (?)] (4) lions, their mouths being open, the face of each 
being turned to the other; you put some .... its face (?). (5) If you 
wish to bring a woman to you at any time, you place the ring on the 
upper part of a lamp, (6) which is lighted, you say, 'Bring N. 
daughter of N. to this place (7) in which I am, quickly in these 
moments of to-day.' 

Then she comes at once. 


(1) To heal ophthalmia(?) in a man. 

'[Ho?]Amon, this lofty male, this male of Ethiopia, who came down 

(2) from Meroe to Egypt, he finds my son Horns betaking himself 
as fast as his feet move (?), and he injured (?) him (3) in his head 
with three spells in Ethiopian language, and he finds N. son of N. 
and carries him as fast as his feet move(?), (4) and injures his head 

with three spells in Ethiopian language: Gentini, Tentina, (5) 
Kwkwby, [Ak]khe, Akha.' 

(6) (Say it) to a little oil; add salt and nasturtium seed to it, you 
anoint the man who has ophthalmia (?) with it. 

(7) You also write this on a new papyrus; you make it into a written 
amulet on his body: - 'Thou art this eye of heaven' in the writings 
(followed by an eye with rays, as drawn in the papyrus). (1-3) 

(Fragments) (4) of Ethiopia (?), ankh-amu flowers, (5) pound, 

make (?) of the river, (6) paint your eye with it. 


(1) tested.(2) Behold [the ointment which you] put on 

your eye when you (3) approach the vessel of inquiry alone: 

green eye-paint, (4) stibium, qes-ankh (?), amulet of .... , flowers 
of black sher-o (?) (5) which are beans (?), blood of hoopoe, (6) 
pound, [make] into a ball, and paint your eye with it, together with 
juice (7) of Egyptian (?) grapes, and set-stone(?) of Ethiopia; then 

(8) you see the shadow of every god and every goddess. 

(9) Its 

'I invoke you (plur.), ye great gods who shine with the sun, 
Themouks (10) Amp . . . Piam, Enpaia, Eiboth, Eiae, Sabaoth, (11) 
open(?) to me (bis), ye great gods who shine with the sun, let my 
eyes be opened to the (12) light,and let me see the god who 
inquires to-day, hasten (bis) for the protection .... (13) 
Ablanathanalba, the mighty god, Marara, Atone, Abeiath, (14) N . . . 
Senen(?), [Psh]oi, Zatraperkemei, Osiris, (15) Lilam is his name. 

Open to me (bis), ye great gods, let my eyes be opened to the light, 
(16) and let me see the god who inquires to-day. Open to me (bis). I 
cast the fury on you (plur.) of the great (bis) god, (17) .... whose 
might is great (?), who lives for ever, give power to the name(?) 

(18) the name of the god (?) open to me (bis), (19) ye 

great [gods] who shine with the sun, let [my eyes] be opened [to 
the light, and let] me (20) [see the god] who answers to-day, 
hasten (bis) . . . times . . .' 


(Lines 1-9 fragments.) (10) dung dried and burnt, 2 (measures), 

(11) pound (with oil of) henna and honey, (12) anoint [your phallus] 
therewith, and lie with her. 


(I) ....(2), ...on it, and you (3) of fine linen on it ( ? him), 

these three names being written on it, (4) with myrrh; you 

light it and place it (5) your head; you recite them to it again 

nine times. (6) the lamp; you do it at the time of the third 

hour(?) of evening (7) [and you] lie down (?). 

Formula : 'lobasaoumptho (8) [Khrome(?) Lou]khar let my eyes be 
opened (9) in truth concerning any given matter which I am 
praying for here (10) [to-day, in] truth without telling thee (sic) 

(II) 'lobasaoumptthokhromeloukhar, (12) let my eyes be opened in 
truth concerning any given thing which I am praying (13) for here 

(i) (2) hawk's dung, salt, asi plant, (3) be/, pound together, 

anoint (4) your phallus with it and lie with (5) the woman. If it is 
dry, you (6) pound a little of it with wine, and you (7) anoint your 
phallus with it (8) and you lie with the woman. 
Excellent (bis). 


(1) If you wish [to make] the gods of the vessel(?) speak with you, 

(2) when the gods come in, you say this name to them nine times: 

(3) 'laho, Iphe, Eoe, Kintathour, Nephar, (4) Aphoe.' 

Then he makes command to you as to that which you shall ask him 
about. If delay (5) occur, so that answer is not given you, you recite 
this other name to them nine times until (6) they inquire for you 
truthfully: 'Gogethix, Mantou, (7) Noboe, Khokhir, Hrodor, 
Dondroma, (8) Lephoker, Kephaersore.' 

Seven times. 

(9) laho , Eiphe, On, Kindathour, Nephar, Aphoe. 

(1) According to that which is above within, saying, 'I am this Sit- 
ta-ko, Setem is my name, (2) Setem is my correct name. I am 
Gantha, Ginteu, Giriteu, (3) Hrinoute, Arinoute, Labtatha, 
Laptutha, (4) Laksantha, Sarisa, Markharahuteu, (5) Arsinga-khla; 
another volume (says) Arsinga-label, Bolboel. (6) Boel (bis), Loteri, 
Klogasantra, laho, (7) is my name, laho is my correct name, 
Balkham, the mighty (?) one of heaven, (8) Ablanathanalba, 
gryphon of the shrine of the god which stands to-day (?).' 


(i) You shall cause a star(?) to go . . . place(?) under the earth (?) (2) 
when the moon is in the constellation of Scorpio. 


(1) [Spell to] make mad any man or any woman. 

(2) You take the hair of the man whom you wish, together with the 
hair (3) of a dead (murdered ?) man; and you tie them to each 
other, (4) and tie them to the body of a hawk, and you release (?) it 
(5) alive. If you wish to do it for some days, (6) you put the hawk in 
a place and you feed it in your house. 


(i)If you dung of a smoune-goose, (2) then her body falls. 

(3) Another: you anoint your phallus with dung of (4) a kel, and 
you lie with (the) woman, then she feels thy love (i.e. for thee). 

(5) You pound dung of. with honey, (6) and you anoint your 

phallus with it as above again. 

(7) Another: dung of hyaena(?) with ointment of (8) roses as above 

(9) Another: you fumigate a woman with ichneumon's dung (10) 
when the menstruation is on her; then she is cured. (11) Ass's dung 
also - this method (of treatment). 


(i) 'Sisihoout (2) otherwise Armiouth, (3) the god who Hveth, the 
lamp which is (4) Ughted, come within (5) before me, and give me 
answer (6) concerning that which I ask about here (7) to-day.' 


(1) To make rave for a man. (2) You take a hve shrew-mouse 

(?), (3) and take out its gall and put it in one place, (4) and take its 
heart and put it in another place. You (5) take its whole body, you 
pound it very much; (6) when it is dry, you take a little of the 
pounded stuff with a (7) little blood of your second finger, (that) of 
the heart, (8) of your left hand, and put it in a cup of wine (9) and 
you make the woman drink it, then she has a passion for you. 

(10) You put its gall into a cup of wine, then she dies (11) instantly; 
or put it in meat or some food. 

(12) You put its heart in a ring of gold and put it (13) on your hand; 
then it gives you great praise, love, and respect. 


(1) Horus he was going up a hill at midday in the verdure 

season, mounted on a white horse on a black horse, (2) the 

papyrus rolls [of...] being on(?) him, those of the Great of Five in 
his bosom. He found all the gods seated at the place of judgement 
(3) eating [of the produce ?] of the Nile (?), my (?) Chief. Said they, 
' Horus, come, art thou eating? Horus, come, wilt thou eat ?' 

He said, 'Take yourselves from me; (4) there is no [desire ?] in me 
for eating. I am ill in my head ; I am ill in my body; a fever hath 
taken hold of me, a South wind hath seized me. (5) Doth Isis [cease] 

to make magic? Doth Nephthys cease to give health? Are the 
sixteen Netbeou, is the one Power (6) of God, are [? the 3]65 gods 
seated to eat the produce of the fields of the Nile(?), my(?) Chief, 
until they remove the fever (7) from the head of the son of Isis (and) 
from the head of N. born of N., the fevers by night, the fevers by 

day, the headache, this burning, (8) this heat of the fevers of of 

his feet, remove from the head of N. born of N.' 

(Say it) over genuine oil (9) seven times, and anoint his hand, his 
body, his feet, and pronounce the words to him. 


F.Ll. Griffith 1904 The Demotic Magical Papyrus of London and 
Leiden, H.Grevel & Co., London 


D.T. 237 

I invoke you, spirit of one untimely dead, whoever you are, by the 



Bind the horses whose names and 

images/hkeness on this implement I entrust to you; of 

the Red [team]: Silvanus, Servator, Lues, Zephyrus, Blandus, 

Imbraius, Dives, Mariscus, Rapidus, Oriens, Arbustus; of the 

Blues: Imminens, Dignus, Linon, Paezon, Chrysaspis, Argutus, 

Diresor, Frugiferus, Euphrates, Sanctus, Aethiops, 

Praeclarus. Bind their running, their power, their 

soul, their onrush, their speed. Take away their victory, 

entangle their feet, hinder them, hobble them, so that 

tomorrow morning in the hippodrome they are not able to run 

or walk about, or win, or go out of the starting gates, 

or advance either on the racecourse or track, 

but may they fall with their drivers, Euprepes, son of 

Telesphoros, and Gentius and Felix and 

Dionusios "the biter" and Lamuros. For AMUEKARPTIR 


BEPHURORBETH command you. Bind the horses whose 

names and images I have entrusted to you on this 

implement; of the Reds: Silvanus, 

Servator, Lues, Zephyrus, Blandus, Imbraius, 

Dives, Mariscus, Rapidus, Oriens, Arbustus; 

and of the Blues: Imminens, Dignus, 

Linon, Paezon, Chrysaspis, Argutus, 

Derisor, Frugifems, Euphrates, Sanctus, 

Aethiops, Praeclarus. Bind their running, 

their power, their soul, their onrush, 

their speed. Take away their victory, 

entangle their feet, hinder them, 

hobble them, so that tomorrow 

morning in the hippodrome they 

are not able to run or walk 

about, or win, or go out 

of the starting gates, or 

advance either on the racecourse, 

or circle around the turning point; 

but may they fall with their 

drivers, Euprepes, son of 

Telesphoros, and Gentius and 

Felix, and Dionysius "the 

biter" and Lamuros. Bind 

their hands, take away 

their victory, their exit, 

their sight, so that they 

are unable to see their 

rival charioteers, but 

rather snatch them up 

from their chariots 

and twist them to 

the ground so that 

they alone fall, 
dragged along 
all over the 
at the turning 
points, with 
damage to 
their body, 
with the 

D.T. 241 

EOMALTHABETH ALLASAN. A curse. I invoke you by the great 
names so that you will bind every limb and every sinew of 
Victoricus ~ the charioteer of the Blue team, to whom the earth, 
mother of every living thing, gave birth ~ and of his horses which 
he is about to race; under Secundinus (are) luvenis and Advocatus 
and Bubalus; under Victoricus are Pompeianus and Baianus and 
Victor and Eximius and also Dominator who belongs to Messala; 
also (bind) any others who may be yoked with them. Bind their legs, 
their onrush, their bounding, and their running; blind their eyes so 
that they cannot see and twist their soul and heart so that they 
cannot breathe. Just as this rooster has been bound by its feet, 
hands, and head, so bind the legs and hands and head and heart of 
Victoricus the charioteer of the Blue team, for tomorrow; and also 
(bind) the horses which he is about to race; under Secundinus, 
luvenis, and Atvocatus and Bubalus and Lauriatus; under 
Victoricus, Pompeianos, and Baianus and Victor and Eximius and 
Dominator who belongs to Messala and any others who are yoked 
with them. Also I invoke you by the god above the heaven, who is 
seated upon the Cherubim, who divided the earth and separated 
the sea, lAO, ABRIAO, ARBATHIAO, ADONAI, SABAO, so that 
you may bind Victoricus the charioteer of the Blue team and the 
horses which he is about to race; under Secundinus, luvenis, and 
Advocatus, and under Victoricus Pompeianus, and Baianus and 
Victor and Eximius and Dominator who belongs to Messala; so 

that they may not reach to victory tomorrow in the circus. Now, 
now, quickly, quickly. 

D.T. 242 

I invoke you, whoever you are, spirit of the dead, lONA, the god 
who estabhshed earth and heaven. I bind you by oath, 
NEICHAROPLEX, the god who holds the power of the places down 
beneath. I bind you by oath, the god ... of the spirits. I bind you 
by oath, great AROUROBAARZAGRAN, the god of Necessity. I 
bind you by oath, BLABLEISPHTHEIBAL, the firstborn god of 
Earth "on which to lie(?)" I bind you, LAILAM, the god of winds 
and spirits. I bind you, ... RAPOKMEPH (?) the god who presides 
over all penalties of every living creature. I bind you, lord 
ACHRAMACHAMAREI, the god of the heavenly firmaments. I 
bind you, SALBALACHAOBRE, the god of the underworld who 
lords over every living creature. I bind you, ARCHPHESON(?) of 
the underworld, the god who leads departed souls, holy Hermes, 
the heavenly AONKREIPH, the terrestrial.... I bind you by oath, 
lAO, the god appointed over the giving of soul to everyone, 
GEGEGEN. I bind you, SEMESEILAM, the god who illuminates 
and darkens the world. I bind you, THOBARRABAU, the god of 
rebirth. I bind you, the god who... the whole wine-troughs.... I 
bind you, AOABAOTH, the god of this day in which I bind you. I 
bind you, ISOS, the god who has the power of this hour in which I 
bind you. I bind you, lAO IBOEA, the god who lords over the 
heavenly firmaments. I bind you, ITHUAO, the god of heaven. I 
bind you, NEGEMPSENOPUENIPE, the god who gives thinking to 
each person as a favor. I bind you, CHOOICHAREAMON, the god 
who fashioned every kind of human being. I bind you, 
ECHETAROPSIEU, the god who granted vision to all men as a 
favor. I bind you, THESTHENOTHRIL . CHEAUNXIN, who 

granted as a favor to men movement by the joints of the body. I 
bind you, PHNOUPHOBOEN, the Father-of- Father god. I bind you, 
NETHMOMAO, the god who has given you (the corpse) the gift of 
sleep and freed you from the chains of hfe. I bind you, NACHAR, 
the god who is the master of all tales. I bind you, STHOMBLOEN, 
the god who is lord over slumber. I bind you, OE lAO EEEAPH, the 
god of the air, the sea, the subterranean world, and the heavens, 
the god who has produced the beginning of the seas, the only- 
begotten one who appeared out of himself, the one who holds the 
power of fire, of water, of the earth and of the air. I further bind 
throughout the earth (by?) names of triple-form Hekate, the 
tremor-bearing, scourge-bearing, torch-carrying, golden-slippered- 
blood-sucking-netherworldly and horseriding (?) one. I utter to 
you the true name that shakes Tartarus, earth, the deeps and 
ESTHANCHOUCHENCHOUCHEOCH, in order that you serve me 
in the circus on the eighth of November and bind every limb, every 
sinew, the shoulders, the wrists, and the ankles of the charioteers 
of the Red Team: Olympos, Olympianos, Scorteus, and luvencus. 
Torture their thoughts, their minds, and their senses so that they 
do not know what they are doing. Pluck out their eyes so that they 
cannot see, neither they nor their horses which they are about to 
drive: the Egyptian steed Kallidromos and any other horse teamed 
with them; Valentinus and Lampadios... Maurus who belongs to 
Lampadius; Chrysaspis, Juba and Indos, Palmatus and Superbus... 
Boubalus who belong to Censorapus; and Ereina. If he should ride 

any other horse instead of them, or if some other horse is teamed 
with these, let them [not] outdistance [their foes] lest they ride to 

D.T. 271 (Hadrumetum, North Africa, 

c. 3rd cent. C.E.) 

I invoke you daimonion spirit who lies here, by the holy name 
AOTH ABAOTH, the god of Abraham and LAO, the god of Jacob, 
lAO AOTH ABAOTH, god of Israma, hear the honored, dreadful 
and great name, go away to Urbanus, to whom Urbana gave birth, 
and bring him to Domitiana, to whom Candida gave birth, [so that] 
loving, frantic, and sleepless with love and desire for her, he may 
beg her to return to his house and become his wife, I invoke you, 
the great god, eternal and more than eternal, almighty and exalted 
above the exalted ones. I invoke you, who created the heaven and 
the sea. I invoke you, who set aside the righteous. I invoke you, 
who divided the staff in the sea, to bring Urbanus, to whom Urbana 
gave birth, and united him with Domitiana, to whom Candida gave 
birth, loving, tormented, and sleepless with desire and love for her, 
so that he may take her into his house as his wife. I invoke you, 
who made the mule unable to bear offspring. I invoke you, who 
separated light from darkness. I invoke you, who crushes rocks. I 
invoke you, who breaks apart mountains. I invoke you, who 
hardened the earth on its foundations. I invoke you, by the holy 
name which is not spoken. ...I will mention it by a word with the 
same numerical equivalent and the daimones will be awakened, 
startled, terrified, to bring Urbanus, to whom Urbana gave birth, 
and unite him with Domitiana, to whom Candida gave birth, loving 
and begging for her. Now! Quickly! I invoke you, who made the 
heavenly lights and stars by the command of your voice, so that 
they should shine on all men. I invoke you, who shook the entire 

world, who breaks the back of mountains and casts them up out of 
the water, who causes the whole earth to tremble and then renews 
all its inhabitants. I invoke you, who made signs in the heaven, on 
earth and on the sea, to bring Urbanus, to whom Urbana gave birth, 
and unite him as husband with Domitiana, to whom Candida gave 
birth, loving her, sleepless with desire for her, begging for her, and 
asking that she return to his house and become his wife. I invoke 
you, great, everlasting and almighty god, whom the heavens and 
the valleys fear throughout the whole earth, through whom the lion 
gives up its spoil and the mountains tremble with earth and sea, 
and [through whom] each becomes wise who possesses fear of the 
Lord who is eternal, immortal, vigilant, hater of evil, who knows all 
things that have happened, good and evil, in the sea and rivers, on 
earth and mountain, AOTH, ABAOTH, the god of Abraham and 
lAO of Jacob, lAO AOTH, ABAOTH, god of Israma, bring Urbanus, 
to whom Urbana gave birth, and unite him with Domitiana, to 
whom Candida gave birth, loving, frantic, tormented with love, 
passion, and desire for Domitiana, whom Candida bore; unite 
them in marriage and as spouses in love for all the time of their 
lives. Make him as her obedient slave, so that he will desire no 
other woman or maiden apart from Domitiana alone, to whom 
Candida gave birth, and will keep her as his spouse for all the time 
of their lives. Now, now! Quickly, quickly! 

Papers on the Greek Magical 


Self-Identification with Deity and 

Voces Magicae in 
Ancient Egyptian and Greek Magic 

Occultists and esotericists , such as the Hermetic Order of the 
Golden Dawn, have theorized that ancient Egyptian magic is a 
primary source for western magic practice and ideas. Since we 
know that the Hermetica and Neo-platonic theurgy have had a 
profound influence on later European magical traditions, an 
inquiry into possible relationships between Egyptian and Greek 
magical ideas would be useful in exploring the veracity of the 
occultists' claim. This paper focuses on one set of ancient texts, the 
Greek Magical Papyri, which offer considerable potential for 
investigating this relationship. 

The PGM (Papryi Graecae Magicae) is the name given to a cache of 
papryi of magical spells collected by Jean d'Anastaisi in early 
1800's Egypt. Hans Deiter Betz, in his introduction to the newest 
English translation, speculates that these papyri may have been 
found in a tomb or temple library and the largest papyri may have 
been the collection of one man in Thebes. However, the exact 
provenance for the PGM is unknown. Betz states that through 
literary sources it is known that quite a number of magical books of 
spells were collected in ancient times, most of which were 

destroyed. Thus, the PGM are a very important source for first- 
hand information about magical practices in the ancient 

The PGM spells run the gamut of magical practices from initiatory 
rites for immortality to love spells and healing rites. Most of the 
papyri are in Greek and Demotic with glosses in Old Coptic and are 
dated between the 2nd century BC and the 5th century AD. The 
spells call upon Greek, Egyptian, Jewish, Gnostic and Christian 

Two of the most intriguing aspects of these texts are the practice of 
self-identification with deity and the use of voces magicae in 
performing magical rituals. In many of the spells, the practitioner 
is told to use "I am" with a specific deity name to empower or work 
the spell. PGM I 247-62, a spell for invisibility, states 'I am Anubis, 
I am Osir-phre, I am OSOT SORONOUIIER, I am Osiris whom 
Seth destroyed. ." The use of specific magical language in these 
texts, the voces magicae, is abundant. Most of these words are 
considered "untranslatable" by the scholars working with the 
papyri. Words of power in the incantations are composed of long 
strings of vowels, A EE EEE IIII 00000, YYYYYY, 0000000, 
alone or with special names of deities or daimons which are often 
palindromes and significantly lengthy as in 

HONUOMENERPHABOEAI. The exact pronunciation of these 
voces magicae was key to the success of the spells. 

Since Egyptian funerary texts clearly identify the deceased with 
deity and the power of words and language is a predominant 

feature of Egyptian magic, these notions found in the PGM 
appeared to provide a possible link between ancient Egyptian and 
Greek magic. 

Throughout the funerary literature of ancient Egypt, from the 
Pyramid Texts to the Book of the Dead, there is abundant evidence 
that ancient Egyptians thought that human beings could become 
deities. Deities were seen as possessing heku, magic, an aspect of 
the original creative power that formed the cosmos. Thus, magic 
was perceived to be an intrinsic part of reality and the divine. The 
Coffin Texts provide a guide book for the deceased to help her or 
him retain what magic they already possess and to gain more. 
Naming is extremely important in this experience and it is the 
ability to name all the gods and objects encountered that proves 
one has acquired enough magic to sit with the gods. In these texts, 
the deceased is clearly identified with the god Osiris. By using 
historaloe the deceased will successfully navigate the journey to the 
afterlife as did Osiris. The use of historaloe in magical practice was 
common, particularly in healing rites. By knowing the names of all 
encountered in the afterlife and establishing a link with a deity that 
had already been successful in this realm, the deceased was well 
prepared for the journey. 

In the Pyramid texts, the initial Utterances appear to be a script 
directing the different Egyptian deities to recite specific formulas 
on the deceased king's behalf. Utterance i begins "recitation by Nut, 
the greatly beneficent", utterance 2, "recitation by Geb" and so 
forth. Evidence that these utterances were spoken during funeral 
rites are the notes after the recitations which give directions saying, 
for example, "pour water" (ut 23) and "cold water and 2 pellets of 

natron"( ut 32). The priests and priestesses are taking the role of 
the deities in preparing the deceased to join the gods in the afterhfe 
as well as the deceased being identified with Osiris. Self- 
identification with deity is an "authentically Egyptian trait". 

Language, and particularly naming, carries substantial magical 
power in Egyptian thought. The goddess Isis, once she learns Ra's 
true name, is then able to cure him of snake bite. One of the oldest 
cosmologies of the Egyptians from Memphis (approx. 2700 BC) 
describes the god Ptah creating by his mind (heart) and word 
(tongue) . Thus, words contain a primal substance and the act of 
speaking mirrors original creation. Speaking creates reality. 
Writing was given to humans by the god Thoth and the Egyptians 
called their langauge "words of the gods" and hieroglyphs "writing 
of the sacred words." 

The Pyramid Texts, Coffin Text and the Book of the Dead all 
exhibit the Egyptian belief in the power of language to affect the 
world. Words, spoken or written were not just symbols, but 
realities in themselves. Hieroglyphs held particular resonance with 
magical power and most of the funerary texts were written in 
hieroglyphs. The Egyptians clearly believed that humans have 
energetic doubles in the world beyond the physical and it seems 
reasonable to suspect that the hieroglyphs were thought to have a 
similar existence since they were written on the inside of the 
pyramid tombs or coffins or on scrolls placed inside the coffins for 
the deceased to use. Further evidence of the reality of the images 
themselves comes from the practice of cutting particular 
hieroglyphs in half to diminish their potential effect. 

Vowel chanting is also found in Egyptian religious practice as 
reported by Demetrius in his Roman treatise, De Eloutione: 

"in Egypt the priests, when singing hymns in praise of the gods, 
employ the 7 vowels which they utter in due succession and the 
sound of these letters is so euphonious that men listen to it in place 
of the flute and lyre" 

The distinction between religion and magic in scholarly discourse 
breaks down in the context of Egyptian religion and it is reasonable 
to suspect that vowel chanting could be used for more than hymns 
of praise by Egyptian priests. 

Thus, self-identification with deity and use of a specific kind of 
magical language found in the PGM places Egyptian magical 
notions within a Greek magical context. The question then 
becomes, can evidence be found that Greek magic, prior to the 
PGM, included these practices and do they appear in later Greek 
magical material that we know to have influenced the European 

Betz states in the Encyclopedia of Religion that "magic was an 
essential part of Greco-Roman culture and religion." In classical 
Greece, Egypt and Thessaly were considered prime sources of 
magical knowledge, but by 323 BC magical material in Greece had 
increased considerably. Betz further states that it was "Hellenistic 
sjmcretism that produced the abundance of material available 
today." Greek magical practitioners distinguished different types of 
magic; goeteia - lower magic, mageia - general magic and theourgia 
- higher magic. Theourgia, appears to be the most likely place to 
find self-identification with deity and the use of voces magicae. 

Self-identification with deity in magical acts as part of ancient 
Greek magical practice prior to the PGM is not evident. The Greeks 
speculated that humans and gods "had the same mother", but a 
huge gap existed between them. From ancient times to the latest 
date of the PGM, Greek notions about the relationship between 
human existence and divine existence took a variety of forms but 
never followed the Egyptian pattern of the possibility of declarative 
divine identity. The ancient Greeks believed that communion with 
the gods was possible as in the Eleusian and Dionysian 
mysteriesand Empedocles declared he had the knowledge to make 
himself immortal. But, the Greek idea of a divine spark within the 
human soul which can be activated, contemplated and re-united 
with the gods still assumes an other-ness of deity and validates the 
fundamental separateness of human existence from the divine. 

For the Egyptians, the divine appears to be immanent in the world. 
The world of humans and gods were not seen as being decidedly 
different. Human activity continued after death and Gods, 
embodied as the Pharoah, lived in human society. Magical practice 
was merely clarifying what already exists. For the Greeks, magic 
was a conduit for communication and communion with deity or a 
process whereby the soul could be purified through direct contact 
with the Divine. Egyptians had only to affirm a state of being 
through speech to create the sought reality. "Repeated commands 
or assertions that a desired state of affairs was already in being, are 
a common feature of Egyptian spells." 

However, there are references to the voces magicae in ancient 
Greek material aside from the PGM. Early, are the Ephesia 

DAMNAMENEUS, AISIA ) mystic letters that were supposedly 
inscribed on the statue of Artemis at Ephesus used verbally and 
written to avert evil. A lead tablet inscribed with the Ephesia 
grammata dates to the 4th c BC and they were said to be used 
spoken as an apotropiac charm while walking in a circle around 

Peter Kingsley, writing of Empedocles' magical worldview, states 
"there is nothing that is not vibrantly and knowingly alive. For him 
[Empedocles] - everything - even the words spoken by a man of 
understanding has an existence, intelligence and consciousness of 
it's own." This notion appears close to the Egyptian ideas that 
words are not symbols, but realities. 

Orpheus healed human pathos with poems and the lyre, while 
Pythagoras could chant his disciples to sleep and heal body and 
soul through musical words. Fox argues that the PGM are carrying 
forward this "shamantic" tradition of magical musical charms. For 
the actual author(s) of the PGM, the notion of the magical potency 
of language could have been very strong indeed coming out of both 
the Egyptian and Greek magical traditions. 

The use of voces magicae continues into later Coptic texts. For a 
spell invoking a "thundering power to perform every wish" the 
practitioner should say: "I invoke you. . .who is addressed with the 
great secret name HAMOUZETH BETH 

ATHANABASSETONI ."Vowel incantations are also found in these 
Coptic texts in figures typical of the PGM: 



Voces magicae are also referred to in the Chaldean Oracles which 
are contemporary with the PGM and they appear to be an intrinsic 
part of the theurgist's ritual. What is intriguing, for this study, 
about the Chaldean Oracles, is the relationship between the voces 
magicae and the process of immortalization of the soul, which is 
the goal of theurgy. These texts provide the closest approximation 
to self-identification with deity in a non-Egyptian context. 
According to the Chaldeans, the soul, in its descent to the body 
gathers impure substances. Through theurgistic rites, the soul can 
re-ascend, encounter the Divine and be purified of these impure 
substances and attain immortality. The voces magicae invoke the 
assistant spirits that will help the soul to ascend without fear of 
being dragged down into Hades. However, even though 
immortalization is the goal, self-identification with deity is not 
declared and only the soul can attain such a state. 

The idea that the Egyptian language specifically held magical 
power is seen in the writings of people of the time. In the 
Hermetica (CH xvi) there is a passage which states that Greeks will 
not understand the Hermetica when translated into their language 
as Greek does not contain the power of Egyptian. The Chaldean 
Oracles state "do not ever alter the foreign names (of the gods)". 
Lewy elaborates further, "It is impossible to translate the magical 
formula, because its power it not due to its external sense." 
lamblichus, describing the difficulty of translating the Hermetica 
from Egyptian to Greek says ". . .for the very quality of the sounds 

and the [intonation] of the Egyptian words contain in itself the 
force of things said." Invocation of deities by their secret names is 
also characteristic of Egyptian magic prior to the PGM according to 
Pinch, but unfortunately she does not give examples. 

Scholars have identified other potential sources beside Egyptian 
for specific voces magicae. The glossary in the Betz edition of the 
PGM speculates on a few of the voces magicae. Jewish and Greek 
origins are offered as well as Egyptian for the eight names 
considered. Betz finds a intricate syncretism of Greek, Eg)/ptian 
and Jewish elements in the texts. To tease out the various strands 
and definitively locate the origin of specific voces magicae is yet to 
be done and will be difficult. What we may be seeing in the voces 
magicae is a general and wide-spread ancient Mediterranean 
magical practice. It could be that ABRACADABRA is a cousin to 
the voces magicae in the PGM. 

Further questions to be asked regarding the voces magicae are: 
what were the potential avenues of magical communication 
between Egypt and Greece in the 4th century BCE where the 
earliest evidence of specific magical words is found in the Ephesia 
grammata? Is there evidence of specific voces magicae, other than 
vowel chanting, in Egj^tian magical practice prior to the PGM? If 
the specific form comes from Greek notions, why are the voces 
magicae in the PGM glossed into Old Coptic in many spells where 
the main body of the text is in Greek? 

In conclusion, the claim that the roots of European magic can be 
traced to Egyptian magic appears highly suspect in regard to the 
notions discussed. Egyptian ideas and practices of self- 

identification with deity do not seem to be compatible with Greek 
notions of the relationship between the human and divine worlds. 
Through the voces magicae there is evidence of a generalized 
magical tradition in the ancient Mediterranean from which the 
European tradition may draw, but not specifically from Egypt. 

The Demons of Magic 

I was first asked to talk about demons of magic and the notion was 
that I would show slides representing various demonic beings, 
demons we find on the magical gems. It occurred to me that you 
were probably familiar with them. You certainly would be if you 
looked at the works placed on the admirable bibliography that was 
circulated, especially Bonner's Studies in Magical Amulets, Chiefly 
Graeco-Egyptian is to be highly recommended. If you do look at 
those you will find that the imagination of the Greco-Near 
Easterners of the second century A. D. produced a fantastic 
population of beings who are quite unlike ancient near Eastern 
gods, on the one hand, and even less like the standard Greek or 
Roman gods, on the other. As far as iconography goes there was a 
flourishing or a remarkable growth of new and fantastic forms. 
This did not by any means take care of all the gods that were used 
in magic. I will come back to that point presently. 

I decided not to deal with this question because I thought, as I have 
said, that if you were reading the recommended bibliography or if 
you were interested in the purely iconagraphic side of magical 
invention, you could easily do that for yourselves. A friend of mine 
who gave up church history for history of art told me, "I used to 
have to read the texts but now I just have to look at the pictures." 
For iconagraphic studies you could do that; one picture is worth a 
thousand words. Besides that, I was having troubled as I started 
preparing for that since the magical gems commonly show the gods 
that are invoked, how do you know when something that appears 
on a magical gem is a god, and when is it a daimon. Take the 

rooster-headed angleped, for instance. He is a rooster from the 
neck up, and from the neck to the knees he is a Roman soldier in 
regular Roman soldier's armor. He grasps a good round Roman 
shield, and wields the whip. And from the knees down he is a pair 
of serpents. An odd creature. Very widely represented, very often 
with the name Abrasax, which led to a belief that he was a 
representation of Abrasax. But lao also appears very often in 
connection with him. So it was thought too that he was a 
representation of lao. You had your choice, and you could solve the 
problem by saying that this was a representation of Abrasax-Iao or 
lao-Abrasax, product of sjmcretism. Then go on to the remarks of 
the heresiologists about Abrasax as the demon of the year whose 
number is 365, and the god of the highest heaven which has all the 
lower heavens below him, and so on. But is he a god or is he a 

So I decided that I was facing a new problem, or a problem that I 
had not seen adequately studied. And that is what exactly is the 
usage of the term daimon, and related terms? What usage does 
that family of terms have in magical texts in the Greco-Roman 
world? That is what I have been looking at for preparation of this 
paper. You know of course that the Septuagint has a very simple 
and brief answer to that, apantes hoi theoi ton ethnon daimonia, 
"all the gods of the gentiles are daimonia" (Septuagint Ps. 95.5). 
The Hebrew Psalm 96 calls them elilim. To Homer this statement 
would have been unobjectionable. Homer knows that gods are 
daimones and Nock argued this in Classical Philology 45 49, with 
references to many previous discussions. Daimonia is just the 
derived adjective from the daimones so that's no problem. But 

what is wrong is that the Septuagint didn't intend to make a 
statement of fact, that statement is polemic. The reader is intended 
to understand that, contrary to Homer, daimones are not gods. 
Daimones are inferior beings. And the Septuagint, by saying that 
all the gods of the gentiles are daimonia, is degrading them to a 
class of beings subordinate or inferior to the one true God. 

When the Septuagint does this it was not doing something that was 
radically new or peculiarly Jewish. The subordination of daimones 
to theoi has classical precedents. One thinks immediately of Plato's 
Apology, of course. But Plato is by no means the only one nor is he 
the first. So you are faced with this fact that in the classical 
tradition is double. On the one hand, there is a tradition from 
Homer on down equating daimon with theos. On the other hand, 
there is tradition dating back to the pre-Socratic philosophers 
subordinating daimon to theos. The question is, how did the 
magicians deal with this problem of second-class supernatural 
citizens? In the papyri, first of all you must remember that the bulk 
of papyri comes from the fourth and fifth centuries A.D., were 
written at that time, and certainly contain in some instances 
considerably older materials and in some instances contains 
materials invented by the writer. The safest thing to conclude is 
that you have materials from the fourth to the fifth century, in 
general. Sometimes one can see what looks like significant changes 
but it's hard to be sure. For instance, in the Great Magical Papyrus 
of Paris, daimon is used pretty consistently all the way through 
until the last couple of hundred lines. Then daimonia comes in and 
daimon disappears. It looks as if you had an appendix or at least as 
if the last sections of that papyrus were written by someone who 

was subordinating these beings to daimon-like beings. Daimonion 
is a step down—it isn't actually a pejorative term or anything of this 
sort, but it is a step down from daimon. And if this step should 
occur, then all usage of daimonion in the Great Magical Papyrus of 
Paris, at least all those which the index chose to record, come after 
the line 3000 and run a few hundred lines. This is a small 
appendix and that the adjectival form is absent in the first 3000 
lines is significant or seems significant. 

So you can trace or see in some instances things that look like 
development but they are not very extensive and they don't enable 
me at least to see any consistent development in the body of 
papyrus material. What struck me first and hardest on reviewing 
that material is that daimones play a comparatively minor part in 
ancient magic. I expected them to be all over the place. In fact, 
when I started to write I said that they would be coextensive: magic, 
ancient Greco-Roman magic and daimones. But they are not. The 
great bulk of ancient magic, of magic recorded by the papyri, and I 
should say a good half of the magic recorded by deifixiones, and all 
of the magic that appears on the magical gems is done by gods as 
far as the writers go. They think and speak of the beings they are 
writing about, for the great majority of cases as theoi. Daimon and 
daimonion as far as I know never appear on the magical gems at all. 
There is one instance, in a gem in Braunschweig (number 186 of 
the Braunschweig gems in the big German collection Andke 
Gemmen) does have something that is restored or read as 
daimonion on it. But unfortunately that gem, because of stylistic 
grounds, is probably 16th to 17th century A.D. The chance that it is 

ancient is quite small. And there are a lot of points against it 
besides that use of daimonion, 

I haven't examined all of the ancient gems, of course. But this 
judgment is based on a concordance of them that was prepared by 
Mrs. Francis Schwartz who examined about twenty of the major 
and minor published collections and a half dozen standard works 
on ancient gems. So we can leave the gems out of the question. The 
people who made them may have thought that they were 
representing daimonia but they never happened to say so, and we 
can't go confidently beyond their silence. In the deifixiones you run 
into another question, but I'll come back to deifixiones in just a 

The papyri give you the fullest description of the daimones and 
their place in the world. They refer to them fairly often, as a class of 
beings who are intermediate, apparently, between gods and men. 
They are supernatural beings, in the sense that they haven't got 
human physical location and limitations, but they are subordinate 
to the gods. They are found in the air, on the earth, in the waters, 
and on the sea, and also in the underworld. An especially 
important class of them are the demons of the underworld, 
particularly the demons of the dead who become daimones after 
death—apparently all the dead do, and whenever you have a dead 
man you have a decidaimon who can be called up if you have some 
remains of the body, the proper spells, and so on. The decidaimon 
will be particularly effective if the dead man was killed violently, 
especially if was executed for a crime, but also if he died young, 
particularly if he died before marriage. Those who did not reach 
their time of flourishing, and those who died as infants, especially. 

provide lots of demonic service for the magicians. All of these 
daimones for the most part are what you might call the help, the 
labor, of the magical world. They are called in to provide various 
services for the magician. For example, "Go to a such and such 
house and stand next to somebody and take the appearance of the 
god or demon that he or she particularly reveres and tell the target 
person as follows." Then you give the message you want conveyed. 
Or "take control of them," usually used in attempts to get women. 
"Make her jump out of bed and come to me right away and pound 
on the door." "Inflame her with passion. Make her burn." And so 
forth and so on. You can also change the gender, but women, on 
the whole, are easier. The magical world is predominantly straight, 
so charms of this sort are usually for men trying to get women. You 
can also send out demons to commit murder, or for all sorts of 
other purposes, such as to get information. I suppose that if magic 
were still going there would be spells like, "Go to my competitor's 
computer and read what he has on the following keys." So these, 
what I might call lower class help, the helper class of demons, 
frequently appear in lists, especially when you are talking about the 
Great Name. "I have the Great Name at which the gods prostrate 
themselves, the demons are terrified, the wild animals take flight, 
rivers flow backwards..." and so forth and so on. You can go right 
on down. You normally start with the gods, then the demons, then 
the men or wild animals, and then other physical phenomenon, 
such as the seas will calm, and so forth. 

This makes up the great majority of references to daimones in the 
Magical Pap)rri. They vary, but I don't think its worthwhile giving 
the figures because they don't tell you much since the papyri are 

such greatly different lengths. So the fact that you have four or five 
papyri in which there are no references to demons at all is not so 
impressive as it sounds when you look at those papyri and find that 
four of them are of one page only. All of the longer papyri contain 
some references to daimones and I imagine that they average on 
the whole two or three per hundred lines. This isn't enough to 
make them by any means a major concern. They are very apt to be 
used when you have a spell for a purpose. You may, in many cases, 
use demons to carry out the purpose, but you may not. I think the 
majority of cases, probably the bulk, well I'd say a small but 
substantial majority of cases demons don't function, the magic is 
done directly by the power of the name or by knowledge of secret 
names or in most cases by the action of the god you call on. And 
even when there are demons, in a great majority of cases they 
function merely as obedient to the name of the god which you have, 
or to the commands which are authorizations that the god has 
given to you. So the first thing to do is line up the god (go directly 
to the provost). Then after that is settled you go, with authorization 
from the deity, to the subordinate official, the daimon. And then 
the daimon will do as you tell him and he must do as he is told 
because you have the authorization of the great god So-and-so 
whose name you pronounce, and you may also display his seal and 
the like. 

That makes up the bulk of the magic and demons are not really 
very important. Well, at this point I am being challenged by the 
communist thinkers about demonology, who'll say it is true that 
demons provided the working force of the ancient world but who is 
to say that the work force of ancient magic and who is to say that 

the work force is unimportant. Now they were the people who did 
the work, and so on. I leave that argument without further 
discussion. This wasn't the way the ancient magicians saw it. They 
are strictly social snobs. Their notion is that the gods are important 
and the demons are simply there to do what you order them to do 
once the god has given you the authorization. It's a world in which 
the rights of the servant class are not considered. Those were the 
good old days. 

Besides this, however, there is a very interesting class of 
exceptional passages which occur much more rarely but deserve, I 
think, much more attention. These are the ones that carry on the 
old tradition of identifying the gods as daimones, so that you get a 
list of names for example: lord god of gods, king daimon, followed 
by magical voces. Further on down in 460 in PGM 4, Helios Horus 
is addressed as "ruler of the world" or "lord of the world," "daimon 
of sleepless fire." Not only that but you have references to high 
gods who alike subordinate the gods and the daimons. Octiothus, 
for instance in 26.2, is "the only tyrant and swift fate of gods and 
daimones alike." And Selene is pretty much the same thing in 
26.65. What really shows the seriousness of the problem you are 
getting into is (I'm still in the Great Paris Papyrus) in 29,74 are the 
directions for collecting herbs. An Egyptian when collecting herbs 
takes hold of the plant and calls on the daimon to whom the plant 
is sacred. This is obviously to the god to whom the plant is sacred, 
and they've just been called daimones, and this is shown by what 
follows. He tells the plant that it is the heart of Hermes, the eye of 
the sun, the light of the moon and so on. So Helios, Selene, Hermes 
are clearly the gods to whom the plant is sacred and they've just 

been called daimones. Not only that, but he tells the plant that it is 
the soul of the daimon of Osiris, which (not who [masculine], but 
which), was carried everywhere (I think the text is correct, but I 
don't know. It certainly is an extremely puzzling passage. ) There 
are more of them in the next papyrus, papyrus 5. "I invoke you who 
created earth and bones and all flesh and every spirit (whose 
clearly the high god) conducting all things according to law, eternal 
eye, daimon of daimones, god of gods, lord of the spirits, inerrant 
aeon, eaoueaouae. I call you because I can, I call you because I 
am ..." and so forth, the magician goes on to declare his magical 
powers. And then the god, daimon of daimons, god of gods, lord of 
the spirits and inerrant aeon is expected, on the account of who the 
magician is, to show him proper respect and do as he is told. This 
spell, by the way, belongs to anti-social magic. It will break bonds, 
it will break fetters, it will make thieves invisible, send dreams, win 
favors with ladies and gentlemen and so forth and so on. 

You get into PGM 7 and 8 and you find an interesting spell which 
occurs several times: "Spell for demanding a dream from Bes." "I 
call on you the headless god who has sight in his feet. You who 
lightning and thunder ..." etcetera. Besides being headless, he is 
cosmic. "Arise, daimon. You are not a daimon but theblood of the 
two hawks on the coffin of Osiris ..." etcetera. You go on to what 
the two hawks are up to and come back. "I conjure you daimon by 
your two names: Anouth-anouth. You are the headless god." and so 
forth, "Answer me." It's quite clear that the terms "daimon" and 
"god" are fluctuating back and forth here as practically equivalent 
terms. And that the creature we have in mind, a headless being 
with eyes on his feet is much like, or like what would ordinarily be 

considered a good daimon, then what would ordinarily be 
considered a high god. But he is the high god and I think he is the 
high god because he is the earth which hasn't got a head, which has 
a great stretch of flat land. The shoulders with the neck cut off 
which wears around itself the seed as a great serpent out of which 
the gods and men and other things grow. As gods, plants and men 
and the like are shown growing from this headless being wearing 
the great serpent around his middle as a loincloth. I'm describing a 
lapis lazuli gem in the British museum that shows this very clearly; 
it is reasonably well inscribed so you can see these details. There 
are a number of other gems showing this headless demon and we 
also find him in statues. There are a couple of lead statues from 
Syracuse showing him with his eyes (in this case) not on the feet 
but in the tummy. You have a headless torso with a face on the 
navel and there is another to prove that this was not just a 
Syracusen peculiarity. You have another statue of the same sort 
from the neighborhood of Constantinople. So this earth god is Bes 
and he also agathos daimon, Bes and agathos daimon and the 
headless god are very closely intertwined. That was easier to do 
because as you all know agathos daimon is serpentine. Agathos 
daimon is a well recognized god, who has well recognized cults in 
Egypt also elsewhere in southern Italy and the like. 

But you find other gods also being called daimon, and quite 
explicitly in Papyrus 7.961. "Come to me invisible pantocrator, 
creator of the gods... Come to me invincible daimon Seth...Come to 
me fire-bright spirit, the god not to be despised. Daimon and 
daimon, subdue enslave Miss So-and-So." The connection of 
agathos daimon in this sort of passage which is particularly marked 

appears again in PGM i2.i3of. "And I say also to you because I 
have . . " (the magician is telhng the deity he is speaking to him) 
" . . . and I say also to you daimon of great power go to the 
household of Miss So-and-So and you obey me agathos daimon 
whose power is greatest of the gods. Obey me, go!" There is 
another one of these in 13.762, an invocation of agathos daimon: 
"Whose hidden name the daimones are terrified, of whom the sun 
and the moon are the eyes shining in the eyes of men. He has his 
good affluences in the stars, daimones and fortunes and moira..." 
and so on. I think these suffice to show the problem that you have 
here, and I suspect it may be to a considerable extent a literary 
problem, in other words, that the early Homeric tradition of 
daimones as gods, given the importance of Homer in classical 
education is living on, side by side, with the developing and 
increasingly powerful classification of daimones as subordinate 
spirits. And since magic is a matter of ad hoc spells rather than a 
systematic thinking, it's not surprising that you get survivals and 
mixed forms of these various different lines and stages of earlier 

The application of daimon to greater gods is relevantly limited. 
Apollo is called a daimon, Agathos daimon of course is one. Selene, 
especially when she is being called on to do unpleasant things, and 
Octinofus, with whom she is identified, are daimones. The use is 
occasional. Seth is a shady deity despite being described as a 
brilliant god. Here's one more that has a surprise at the end and 
shows how this carries on. I don't know whether it is into 
Christianity or is taking up things from Christianity. Once again 
this is a loosing spell. "... who loose all bonds. Go and loose the iron 

around so and so because the great and unspeakable and holy and 
just and fearful and powerful and authoritative and terrifying and 
unneglectable daimon, the great god Zora and Merabach 
commands you." And that is the type of thing you've come to 
expect. But then "When the bonds are broken, say I thank you lord 
that the Holy Spirit the only begotten living one released me. And 
again say the spell, "God who set the stars in their places, a string 
of magical voces, "daimon, deceitful one." And also the whole name 
of Helios with a long string of magical voces, which are the whole 
name of Helios. So apparently I take it that the mix up of the Holy 
Spirit the only begotten would date this prior to the Council of 
Constantinople, when the doctrine of the Holy Spirit was put pretty 
much in final form and separation from the only begotten was 
settled. The Spirit was not begotten but preceded. The Son was 
begotten and did not precede. How far these doctrinal, even 
though they did have imperial power behind them, decisions won 
acceptance in magical circles is what we would like to know. If you 
are mainly interested in breaking your bonds, having your fetters 
broken and being able to leave prison without anyone noticing you, 
you might not be too sensitive to theological decisions. But I do 
think that sufficiently indicates the mix-up of the situation that 
confronts us. 

I guess I came across one thing that I'll like to call your attention to. 
A passage I found was a spell for an oracle in PGM 4.964 which is 
addressed to be said before a lamp. It is addressed to the living god, 
the invisible begetter of light, and it beseeches him by his strength 
"to arouse your daimon and come into this flame and fill it with the 
divine spirit and show me your power and let the house be open. 

the house of the god, be open for me. The house which is in this 
light and become a Ught, breadth, depth, length, height, brilliance 
and let that which is inside shine forth, Lord Bouel (Bouel is good, 
old Egyptian god who plays a large role in the Demotic papyrus.)" 
You can see the auto-suggestion of the magician, "Let the flame be 
open, ... let me see the depth, the breadth and the depth ..." and so 
on. But you notice that if you start doing this with gestures you find 
yourself in four dimensions. It is possible that the magicians with 
their extraordinary powers anticipated Einstein. But I am inclined 
to believe that four dimensional thought is a modern phenomenon 
and what you have here is simple, old fashioned rhetoric. In spite 
of the fact that it does not make sense when you try and do it, and 
you find yourself getting tangled up. What is remarkable is that 
this appears also in Ephesians 3:18 with the same four dimensions, 
not three. "Therefore, I bend my knees to the father, from whom 
every paternity is named in heaven and on earth and whom every 
fatherland is named in the heavens and on earth in order that the 
prayer that he may give to you according to the wealth of His glory 
and power to be strengthened through His spirit in the inner man. 
To make Christ dwell with faith in your hearts, being rooted in love 
that is founded in order that you may have the strength to 
comprehend with all the saints what is the breadth and the length 
and the heighth and the depth." That I noticed before and I think I 
might have put it in Jesus the Magician, or somewhere in a 
previous publication. But what I noticed this time is that this whole 
passage in Ephesians is full of parallels to this whole passage in 
PGM 4.964f. In Ephesians it starts with a prayer to the Living God, 
the Begetter of light, a prayer to the Father, that "...He may give 
you according to the power of His glory to be strengthened." In the 

magical text goes on to say, "... Give your strength and arouse 
your daimon to be strengthened by his spirit and show me your 
power." Ephesians has, "And let the house of the all ruling God be 
opened to cause Christ to dwell by means of faith in your hearts in 
order that you may understand with all the saints what is the 
length and depth ..." and so on. Ephesians says " . . in order that 
you may be filled with all of the fullness of God." And the magical 
text says, "And may the lord Bouel who is within shine forth." It's 
clearly not a word for word derivation. These are two 
representatives of a single tradition which has the same essential 
thoughts in it but has been cast independently in two different sets 
of words. Nevertheless, they preserve the same body of topics in 
roughly the same order. Since this is done by arousing the god who 
is entreated to arouse his daimon in order to do this, I think that 
makes a fair ending for this talk about daimones.